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130 Publications

Showing 21-30 of 130 results
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    Dudman LabSternson LabSpruston LabSvoboda LabMouseLight
    09/19/19 | Reconstruction of 1,000 projection neurons reveals new cell types and organization of long-range connectivity in the mouse brain.
    Winnubst J, Bas E, Ferreira TA, Wu Z, Economo MN, Edson P, Arthur BJ, Bruns C, Rokicki K, Schauder D, Olbris DJ, Murphy SD, Ackerman DG, Arshadi C, Baldwin P, Blake R, Elsayed A, Hasan M, Ramirez D, Dos Santos B, Weldon M, Zafar A, Dudman JT, Gerfen CR, Hantman AW, Korff W, Sternson SM, Spruston N, Svoboda K, Chandrashekar J
    Cell. 2019 Sep 19;179(1):268-81. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.07.042

    Neuronal cell types are the nodes of neural circuits that determine the flow of information within the brain. Neuronal morphology, especially the shape of the axonal arbor, provides an essential descriptor of cell type and reveals how individual neurons route their output across the brain. Despite the importance of morphology, few projection neurons in the mouse brain have been reconstructed in their entirety. Here we present a robust and efficient platform for imaging and reconstructing complete neuronal morphologies, including axonal arbors that span substantial portions of the brain. We used this platform to reconstruct more than 1,000 projection neurons in the motor cortex, thalamus, subiculum, and hypothalamus. Together, the reconstructed neurons constitute more than 85 meters of axonal length and are available in a searchable online database. Axonal shapes revealed previously unknown subtypes of projection neurons and suggest organizational principles of long-range connectivity.

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    08/13/19 | Bright and photostable chemigenetic indicators for extended in vivo voltage imaging.
    Abdelfattah AS, Kawashima T, Singh A, Novak O, Liu H, Shuai Y, Huang Y, Campagnola L, Seeman SC, Yu J, Zheng J, Grimm JB, Patel R, Friedrich J, Mensh BD, Paninski L, Macklin JJ, Murphy GJ, Podgorski K, Lin B, Chen T, Turner GC, Liu Z, Koyama M, Svoboda K, Ahrens MB, Lavis LD, Schreiter ER
    Science. 2019 Aug 13;365(6454):699-704. doi: 10.1126/science.aav6416

    Imaging changes in membrane potential using genetically encoded fluorescent voltage indicators (GEVIs) has great potential for monitoring neuronal activity with high spatial and temporal resolution. Brightness and photostability of fluorescent proteins and rhodopsins have limited the utility of existing GEVIs. We engineered a novel GEVI, "Voltron", that utilizes bright and photostable synthetic dyes instead of protein-based fluorophores, extending the combined duration of imaging and number of neurons imaged simultaneously by more than tenfold relative to existing GEVIs. We used Voltron for in vivo voltage imaging in mice, zebrafish, and fruit flies. In mouse cortex, Voltron allowed single-trial recording of spikes and subthreshold voltage signals from dozens of neurons simultaneously, over 15 min of continuous imaging. In larval zebrafish, Voltron enabled the precise correlation of spike timing with behavior.

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    Svoboda Lab
    08/03/19 | Response to "Fallacies of mice experiments".
    Gao Z, Thomas AM, Economo MN, Abrego AM, Svoboda K, De Zeeuw CI, Li N
    Neuroinformatics. 2019 Aug 03:. doi: 10.1007/s12021-019-09433-y

    In a recent Editorial, De Schutter commented on our recent study on the roles of a cortico-cerebellar loop in motor planning in mice (De Schutter 2019, Neuroinformatics, 17, 181-183, Gao et al. 2018, Nature, 563, 113-116). Two issues were raised. First, De Schutter questions the involvement of the fastigial nucleus in motor planning, rather than the dentate nucleus, given previous anatomical studies in non-human primates. Second, De Schutter suggests that our study design did not delineate different components of the behavior and the fastigial nucleus might play roles in sensory discrimination rather than motor planning. These comments are based on anatomical studies in other species and homology-based arguments and ignore key anatomical data and neurophysiological experiments from our study. Here we outline our interpretation of existing data and point out gaps in knowledge where future studies are needed.

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    07/29/19 | Kilohertz frame-rate two-photon tomography.
    Kazemipour A, Novak O, Flickinger D, Marvin JS, Abdelfattah AS, King J, Borden P, Kim J, Al-Abdullatif S, Deal P, Miller E, Schreiter E, Druckmann S, Svoboda K, Looger L, Podgorski K
    Nature Methods. 2019 Jul 29;16(8):778-86. doi: 10.1101/357269

    Point-scanning two-photon microscopy enables high-resolution imaging within scattering specimens such as the mammalian brain, but sequential acquisition of voxels fundamentally limits imaging speed. We developed a two-photon imaging technique that scans lines of excitation across a focal plane at multiple angles and uses prior information to recover high-resolution images at over 1.4 billion voxels per second. Using a structural image as a prior for recording neural activity, we imaged visually-evoked and spontaneous glutamate release across hundreds of dendritic spines in mice at depths over 250 microns and frame-rates over 1 kHz. Dendritic glutamate transients in anaesthetized mice are synchronized within spatially-contiguous domains spanning tens of microns at frequencies ranging from 1-100 Hz. We demonstrate high-speed recording of acetylcholine and calcium sensors, 3D single-particle tracking, and imaging in densely-labeled cortex. Our method surpasses limits on the speed of raster-scanned imaging imposed by fluorescence lifetime.

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    Svoboda Lab
    06/26/19 | Ephus: multipurpose data acquisition software for neuroscience experiments.
    Suter BA, O'Connor T, Iyer V, Petreanu LT, Hooks BM, Kiritani T, Svoboda K, Shepherd GM
    Front Neural Circuits. 2010;4:100. doi: 10.3389/fncir.2010.00100

    Physiological measurements in neuroscience experiments often involve complex stimulus paradigms and multiple data channels. Ephus (http://www.ephus.org) is an open-source software package designed for general-purpose data acquisition and instrument control. Ephus operates as a collection of modular programs, including an ephys program for standard whole-cell recording with single or multiple electrodes in typical electrophysiological experiments, and a mapper program for synaptic circuit mapping experiments involving laser scanning photostimulation based on glutamate uncaging or channelrhodopsin-2 excitation. Custom user functions allow user-extensibility at multiple levels, including on-line analysis and closed-loop experiments, where experimental parameters can be changed based on recently acquired data, such as during in vivo behavioral experiments. Ephus is compatible with a variety of data acquisition and imaging hardware. This paper describes the main features and modules of Ephus and their use in representative experimental applications.

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    Looger LabJayaraman LabSvoboda LabSchreiter Lab
    06/17/19 | High-performance calcium sensors for imaging activity in neuronal populations and microcompartments.
    Dana H, Sun Y, Mohar B, Hulse BK, Kerlin AM, Hasseman JP, Tsegaye G, Tsang A, Wong A, Patel R, Macklin JJ, Chen Y, Konnerth A, Jayaraman V, Looger LL, Schreiter ER, Svoboda K, Kim DS
    Nature Methods. 2019 Jun 17;16(7):649-57. doi: 10.1038/s41592-019-0435-6

    Calcium imaging with genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) is routinely used to measure neural activity in intact nervous systems. GECIs are frequently used in one of two different modes: to track activity in large populations of neuronal cell bodies, or to follow dynamics in subcellular compartments such as axons, dendrites and individual synaptic compartments. Despite major advances, calcium imaging is still limited by the biophysical properties of existing GECIs, including affinity, signal-to-noise ratio, rise and decay kinetics and dynamic range. Using structure-guided mutagenesis and neuron-based screening, we optimized the green fluorescent protein-based GECI GCaMP6 for different modes of in vivo imaging. The resulting jGCaMP7 sensors provide improved detection of individual spikes (jGCaMP7s,f), imaging in neurites and neuropil (jGCaMP7b), and may allow tracking larger populations of neurons using two-photon (jGCaMP7s,f) or wide-field (jGCaMP7c) imaging.

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    Svoboda LabMouseLight
    03/12/19 | Single-neuron axonal reconstruction: The search for a wiring diagram of the brain.
    Economo MN, Winnubst J, Bas E, Ferreira TA, Chandrashekar J
    The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 2019 Mar 12:. doi: 10.1002/cne.24674

    Reconstruction of the axonal projection patterns of single neurons has been an important tool for understanding both the diversity of cell types in the brain and the logic of information flow between brain regions. Innovative approaches now enable the complete reconstruction of axonal projection patterns of individual neurons with vastly increased throughput. Here we review how advances in genetic, imaging, and computational techniques have been exploited for axonal reconstruction. We also discuss how new innovations could enable the integration of genetic and physiological information with axonal morphology for producing a census of cell types in the mammalian brain at scale. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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    Svoboda Lab
    05/15/19 | Prediction of choice from competing mechanosensory and choice-memory cues during active tactile decision making.
    Campagner D, Evans MH, Chlebikova K, Colins-Rodriguez A, Loft MS, Fox S, Pettifer D, Humphries MD, Svoboda K, Petersen RS
    The Journal of Neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2019 May 15;39(20):3921-33. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2217-18.2019

    Perceptual decision making is an active process where animals move their sense organs to extract task-relevant information. To investigate how the brain translates sensory input into decisions during active sensation, we developed a mouse active touch task where the mechanosensory input can be precisely measured and that challenges animals to use multiple mechanosensory cues. Male mice were trained to localise a pole using a single whisker and to report their decision by selecting one of three choices. Using high-speed imaging and machine vision we estimated whisker-object mechanical forces at millisecond resolution. Mice solved the task by a sensory-motor strategy where both the strength and direction of whisker bending were informative cues to pole location. We found competing influences of immediate sensory input and choice memory on mouse choice. On correct trials, choice could be predicted from the direction and strength of whisker bending, but not from previous choice. In contrast, on error trials, choice could be predicted from previous choice but not from whisker bending. This study shows that animal choices during active tactile decision making can be predicted from mechanosenory and choice-memory signals; and provides a new task, well-suited for future study of the neural basis of active perceptual decisions.Due to the difficulty of measuring the sensory input to moving sense organs, active perceptual decision making remains poorly understood. The whisker system provides a way forward since it is now possible to measure the mechanical forces due to whisker-object contact during behaviour. Here we train mice in a novel behavioural task that challenges them to use rich mechanosensory cues, but can be performed using one whisker and enables task-relevant mechanical forces to be precisely estimated. This approach enables rigorous study of how sensory cues translate into action during active, perceptual decision making. Our findings provide new insight into active touch and how sensory/internal signals interact to determine behavioural choices.

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    Svoboda Lab
    02/21/19 | Principles governing the dynamics of GABAergic interneurons in the barrel cortex.
    Yu J, Hu H, Agmon A, Svoboda K
    bioRxiv. 2019 Feb 21:. doi: 10.1101/554949

    Information processing in the neocortex is performed by GABAergic interneurons that are integrated with excitatory neurons into precisely structured circuits. To reveal how each neuron type shapes sensory representations, we measured spikes and membrane potential of specific types of neurons in the barrel cortex while mice performed an active, whisker-dependent object localization task. Whiskers were tracked with millisecond precision. Fast-spiking (FS) neurons were activated by touch with short latency and by whisking. FS neurons track thalamic input and provide feedforward inhibition. Somatostatin (SOM)-expressing neurons were also excited by touch, but with a delay (5 ms) compared to excitatory (E) and FS neurons. SOM neurons monitor local excitation and provide feedback inhibition. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-expressing neurons were not driven by touch but elevated their spike rate during whisking, disinhibiting E and FS neurons. Our data reveal rules of recruitment for specific interneuron types, providing foundations for understanding cortical computations.

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    Romani LabSvoboda Lab
    02/06/19 | Discrete attractor dynamics underlies persistent activity in the frontal cortex.
    Inagaki HK, Fontolan L, Romani S, Svoboda K
    Nature. 2019 Feb 06;566(7743):212-7. doi: 10.1038/s41586-019-0919-7

    Short-term memories link events separated in time, such as past sensation and future actions. Short-term memories are correlated with slow neural dynamics, including selective persistent activity, which can be maintained over seconds. In a delayed response task that requires short-term memory, neurons in the mouse anterior lateral motor cortex (ALM) show persistent activity that instructs future actions. To determine the principles that underlie this persistent activity, here we combined intracellular and extracellular electrophysiology with optogenetic perturbations and network modelling. We show that during the delay epoch, the activity of ALM neurons moved towards discrete end points that correspond to specific movement directions. These end points were robust to transient shifts in ALM activity caused by optogenetic perturbations. Perturbations occasionally switched the population dynamics to the other end point, followed by incorrect actions. Our results show that discrete attractor dynamics underlie short-term memory related to motor planning.

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