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87 Publications

Showing 81-87 of 87 results
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    12/01/94 | Neuropeptide induction of cyclic GMP increases in the insect CNS: resolution at the level of single identifiable neurons.
    Ewer J, de Vente J, Truman JW
    The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 1994 Dec;14(12):7704-12

    In insects, the neuropeptide eclosion hormone (EH) acts on the CNS to evoke the stereotyped behaviors that cause ecdysis, the shedding of the cuticle at the end of each molt. Concomitantly, EH induces an increase in cyclic GMP (cGMP). Using antibodies against this second messenger, we show that this increase is confined to a network of 50 peptidergic neurons distributed throughout the CNS. Increases appeared 30 min after EH treatment, spread rapidly throughout these neurons, and were extremely long lived. We show that this response is synaptically driven, and does not involve the soluble, nitric oxide (NO)-activated, guanylate cyclase. Stereotyped variations in the duration of the cGMP response among neurons suggest a role in coordinating responses having different latencies and durations.

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    07/01/91 | The regulation of transmitter expression in postembryonic lineages in the moth Manduca sexta. II. Role of cell lineage and birth order.
    Witten JL, Truman JW
    The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 1991 Jul;11(7):1990-7

    The expression of GABA is restricted to the progeny of only six of the 24 identified postembryonic lineages in the thoracic ganglia of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (Witten and Truman, 1991). It is colocalized with a peptide similar to molluscan small cardioactive peptide B (SCPB) in some of the neurons in two of the six lineages. By combining chemical ablation of the neuroblasts at specific larval stages with birth dating of the progeny, we tested whether the expression of GABA and the SCPB-like peptide was determined strictly by cell lineage or involved cellular interactions among the members of individual clonal groups. Chemical ablation of the six specific neuroblasts that produced the GABA-positive neurons (E, K, M, N, T, and X) or of the two that produced the GABA + SCPB-like-immunoreactive neurons (K, M) prior to the generation of their lineages resulted in the loss of these immunoreactivities. These results suggest that regulation between lineages did not occur. Ablation of the K and M neuroblasts after they had produced a small portion of their lineages had no effect on the expression of GABA, but did affect the pattern of the SCPB-like immunoreactivity. Combining birth-dating techniques with transmitter immunocytochemistry revealed that it was the position in the birth order and not interactions among the clonally related neurons that influenced the peptidergic phenotype. These results suggest that cell lineage is involved in establishing the GABAergic phenotype and that both cell lineage and birth order influence the determination of the peptidergic phenotype.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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    02/01/90 | Postmetamorphic cell death in the nervous and muscular systems of Drosophila melanogaster.
    Kimura KI, Truman JW
    The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 1990 Feb;10(2):403-1

    Programmed cell death occurs in the nervous and muscular system of newly emerged adult Drosophila melanogaster. Many of the abdominal muscles that were used for eclosion and wing-spreading behavior degenerate by 12 hr after eclosion. Related neurons in the ventral ganglion also die within the first 24 hr. Ligation experiments showed that the muscle breakdown is triggered by a signal from the anterior region, presumably the head, that occurs about 1 hr before adult emergence. The timing of this signal suggests that eclosion hormone may be involved. Although muscle death is triggered prior to ecdysis, it can be delayed, at least temporarily, by forcing the emerging flies to show a prolonged ecdysis behavior. In contrast to the muscles, the death of the neurons is triggered after emergence. The signal for neuronal degeneration is closely correlated with the initiation of wing inflation behavior. Ligation and digging experiments and behavioral manipulations that either blocked or delayed wing expansion behavior had a parallel effect in suppressing or delaying neuronal death.

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    01/22/87 | Postembryonic neurogenesis in the CNS of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. I. Neuroblast arrays and the fate of their progeny during metamorphosis.
    Booker R, Truman JW
    The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 1987 Jan 22;255(4):548-59. doi: 10.1002/cne.902550407

    The tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta exhibits dramatic changes in its body morphology and behavior as it is transformed from a larva into an adult during metamorphosis. Accompanying these changes is an extensive reorganization of this moth’s central nervous system (CNS), which involves both the death and remodeling of subsets of larval neurons. We report here that the segmental ganglia of the larvae also contain a stereotyped array of identifiable neuronal stem cells (neuroblasts) that contribute over 2,000 cells to each thoracic ganglion and about 40-80 cells to each abdominal ganglion. The distribution of these neuroblasts varies in a segment specific manner. Dormant neuroblasts are found adjacent to the neuropil in late embryos and early first instar larvae. After the molt to the second instar, these cells enlarge and begin to divide. Through a series of asymmetrical divisions, each neuroblast generates a discrete nest of 10-90 progeny by the end of larval life. These progeny (the imaginal nest cells) are developmentally arrested at an early stage of differentiation and remain so until metamorphosis. At the onset of metamorphosis, a wave of cell death sweeps through the nests, the extent of the death being much greater within the abdominal nests than in the thoracic nests. The surviving imaginal nest cells then differentiate to become functional neurons that are incorporated into the adult CNS.

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    01/01/86 | Endocrine regulation of the form and function of axonal arbors during insect metamorphosis.
    Levine RB, Truman JW, Linn D, Bate CM
    The Journal of Neuroscienc : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 1986 Jan;6(1):293-9

    By discrete manipulation of the endocrine cues that control insect metamorphosis, it has been possible to examine the mechanisms governing the growth of neural processes during development. During the transition from larva to pupa in the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, identified sensory neurons reorganize their central projections to evoke a new behavior–the gintrap reflex. Topical application of a juvenile hormone analog to the peripheral cell bodies of these sensory neurons during a critical period of development caused them to retain their larval commitment rather than undergo pupal development with the rest of the animal. The sensory neurons retained the larval arborization pattern within the pupal CNS and were unable to evoke the gin-trap reflex. Thus, the hormonal environment of the cell body is critical for controlling growth and synapse formation by distant axonal processes.

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    04/30/76 | Dendritic reorganization of an identified motoneuron during metamorphosis of the tobacco hornworm moth.
    Truman JW, Reiss SE
    Science. 1976 Apr 30;192(4238):477-9

    In the tobacco hornworm, many larval motoneurons become respecified and supply new muscles in the adult. Changes in the morphology of one such neuron were examined through metamorphosis. The dendritic pattern of the adult comes about both by outgrowth from the primary and secondary branches of the larval neuron and by the development of new branches that are unique to the adult.

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    Truman LabRiddiford Lab
    03/20/70 | Neuroendocrine control of ecdysis in silkmoths.
    Truman JW, Riddiford LM
    Science. 1970 Mar 20;167(3925):1624-6. doi: 10.1126/science.167.3925.1624

    An adult moth sheds its pupal skin only during a specific period of the day. The brain is necessary for the synchronization of this behavior with the environmental photoperiod. This function is fully preserved when all the brain’s nervous connections are severed or when a "loose" brain is transplanted into the tip of the abdomen. By appropriate experiments it was possible to show that the entire mechanism is brain-centered. The components include a photoreceptor mechanism, a clock, and a neuroendocrine output. The clock-controlled release of the hormone acts on the central nervous system to trigger a species-specific behavior pattern which culminates in ecdysis.

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