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3582 Publications

Showing 3441-3450 of 3582 results
04/01/98 | Protein engineering and the development of generic biosensors.
Hellinga HW, Marvin JS
Trends in Biotechnology. 1998 Apr;16(4):183-9

Biosensors exploit the remarkable specificity of biomolecular recognition to provide analytical tools that can measure the presence of a single molecular species in a complex mixture. A new strategy is emerging in the development of biosensor technologies: molecular-engineering techniques are being used to adapt the properties of proteins to simple, generic detector instrumentation, rather than adapting instruments to the unique requirements of a natural molecule.

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03/07/98 | Specialized electrophysiological properties of anatomically identified neurons in the hilar region of the rat fascia dentata.
Lübke J, Frotscher M, Spruston N
J Neurophysiol. 1998 Mar;79(3):1518-34

Because of their strategic position between the granule cell and pyramidal cell layers, neurons of the hilar region of the hippocampal formation are likely to play an important role in the information processing between the entorhinal cortex and the hippocampus proper. Here we present an electrophysiological characterization of anatomically identified neurons in the fascia dentata as studied using patch-pipette recordings and subsequent biocytin-staining of neurons in slices. The resting potential, input resistance (RN), membrane time constant (taum), "sag" in hyperpolarizing responses, maximum firing rate during a 1-s current pulse, spike width, and fast and slow afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) were determined for several different types of hilar neurons. Basket cells had a dense axonal plexus almost exclusively within the granule cell layer and were distinguishable by their low RN, short taum, lack of sag, and rapid firing rates. Dentate granule cells also lacked sag and were identifiable by their higher RN, longer taum, and lower firing rates than basket cells. Mossy cells had extensive axon collaterals within the hilus and a few long-range collaterals to the inner molecular layer and CA3c and were characterized physiologically by small fast and slow AHPs. Spiny and aspiny hilar interneurons projected primarily either to the inner or outer segment of the molecular layer and had a dense intrahilar axonal plexus, terminating onto somata within the hilus and CA3c. Physiologically, spiny hilar interneurons generally had higher RN values than mossy cells and a smaller slow AHP than aspiny interneurons. The specialized physiological properties of different classes of hilar neurons are likely to be important determinants of their functional operation within the hippocampal circuitry.

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03/01/98 | Mitochondrial transcription factor A is necessary for mtDNA maintenance and embryogenesis in mice.
Larsson NG, Wang J, Wilhelmsson H, Oldfors A, Rustin P, Lewandoski M, Barsh GS, Clayton DA
Nature Genetics. 1998 Mar;18(3):231-6. doi: 10.1038/ng0398-231

The regulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) expression is crucial for mitochondrial biogenesis during development and differentiation. We have disrupted the mouse gene for mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam; formerly known as m-mtTFA) by gene targetting of loxP-sites followed by cre-mediated excision in vivo. Heterozygous knockout mice exhibit reduced mtDNA copy number and respiratory chain deficiency in heart. Homozygous knockout embryos exhibit a severe mtDNA depletion with abolished oxidative phosphorylation. Mutant embryos proceed through implantation and gastrulation, but die prior to embryonic day (E)10.5. Thus, Tfam is the first mammalian protein demonstrated to regulate mtDNA copy number in vivo and is essential for mitochondrial biogenesis and embryonic development.

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02/01/98 | Dorsoventral patterning in the Drosophila retina by wingless.
Heberlein U, Borod ER, Chanut FA
Development. 1998 Feb;125(4):567-77

The eye imaginal disc displays dorsal-ventral (D-V) and anterior-posterior polarity prior to the onset of differentiation, which initiates at the intersection of the D-V midline with the posterior margin. As the wave of differentiation progresses anteriorly, additional asymmetry develops as ommatidial clusters rotate coordinately in opposite directions in the dorsal and ventral halves of the disc; this forms a line of mirror-image symmetry, the equator, which coincides with the D-V midline of the disc. How D-V pattern is established and how it relates to ommatidial rotation are unknown. Here we address this question by assaying the expression of various asymmetric markers under conditions that lead to ectopic differentiation, such as removal of patched or wingless function. We find that D-V patterning develops gradually and that wingless plays an important role in setting up this pattern. We show that wingless is necessary and sufficient to induce dorsal expression of the gene mirror prior to the start of differentiation and also to restrict the expression of the WR122 marker to differentiating photoreceptors near the equator. In addition, we find that manipulations in wingless expression shift the D-V axis of the disc as evidenced by changes in the expression domains of asymmetric markers, the position of the site of initiation and the equator, and the pattern of epithelial growth. Thus, Wg appears to coordinately regulate multiple events related to D-V patterning in the developing retina.

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02/01/98 | Phylogeny of the Tribe Cerataphidini (Homoptera) and the Evolution of the Horned Soldier Aphids
David L Stern
Evolution. 02/1998;52:155-165

The horned soldier aphids of the Cerataphidini, unlike most social insects that reside in nests, live on the open surface of plants. The lack of a nest and other obvious ecological correlates makes it unclear why secondary-host soldiers might have evolved. Here I present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of 32 species of the Cerataphidini, including 10 species from the genera Ceratovacuna and Pseudoregma that produce horned soldiers. The phylogeny suggests that horned soldiers evolved once and were lost once or twice. Most horned soldiers are a morphologically specialized caste and two species that have unspecialized soldiers are independently derived from species with specialized castes. The genus Ceratovacuna appears to have undergone a relatively rapid radiation. Mapping secondary-host plants and geographic ranges onto the phylogeny suggests that bamboos were the ancestral secondary-host plants and that the Asian tropics and subtropics were the ancestral geographic regions for the genera Astegopteryx, Ceratoglyphina, Ceratovacuna Chaitoregma, and Pseudoregma and possibly for the entire tribe. There is evidence for vicariant events that separate the tropical and subtropical lineages in all of the major lineages of the tribe and for dispersal of some lineages. Based on these results, I present hypotheses for the causes and consequences of horned-soldier evolution.

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01/01/98 | Eye development in Drosophila: formation of the eye field and control of differentiation.
Treisman JE, Heberlein U
Current Topics in Developmental Biology. 1998;39:119-58
01/01/98 | The effect of cross-linking on thermal inactivation of cellulases. In stability of stabilization of biocatalyst.
Bilen J, Bakir U, Ballesteros A, Plou F, Iborra J, Hallings P
Progress in Biotechnology:

Soldier-producing aphids have evolved at least nine separate times. The larvae of soldier-producing species can be organized into three general categories: monomorphic larvae, dimorphic larvae with a reproductive soldier caste, and dimorphic larvae with a sterile soldier caste. Here we report the discovery of a novel soldier type in an undescribed species of Pseudoregma that is morphologically similar to P. bambucicola. A colony of this species produced morphologically monomorphic first-instar larvae with a defensive behavioral dimorphism. These larvae attacked natural predators, and larval response to a simple assay, placing the tips of forceps in front of larvae, was correlated with this attacking behavior. Approximately one third of the first-instar larvae in the colony attacked and this proportion was uncorrelated with the time of day, the ambient temperature, or the diel migratory behavior of the aphids. Migrating larvae rarely attacked. Attacking behavior was correlated with another defensive behavior, hind-leg waving. Attackers were more likely to possess the next-instar skin, suggesting that they were older than non-attackers. This is the first example of a possible within-instar age polyethism in soldier-producing aphids. Canonical variates analysis of seven morphological measurements failed to discriminate between attacking and non-attacking larvae. The monomorphic larvae share some morphometric characteristics in common with the soldiers of P. bambucicola and other characteristics in common with normal larvae. We discuss these results with respect to the evolution and loss of soldier castes in the tribe Cerataphidini.

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Riddiford LabTruman Lab
10/01/97 | Disruption of a behavioral sequence by targeted death of peptidergic neurons in Drosophila.
McNabb SL, Baker JD, Agapite J, Steller H, Riddiford LM, Truman JW
Neuron. 1997 Oct;19(4):813-23

The neuropeptide eclosion hormone (EH) is a key regulator of insect ecdysis. We tested the role of the two EH-producing neurons in Drosophila by using an EH cell-specific enhancer to activate cell death genes reaper and head involution defective to ablate the EH cells. In the EH cell knockout flies, larval and adult ecdyses were disrupted, yet a third of the knockouts emerged as adults, demonstrating that EH has a significant but nonessential role in ecdysis. The EH cell knockouts had discrete behavioral deficits, including slow, uncoordinated eclosion and an insensitivity to ecdysis-triggering hormone. The knockouts lacked the lights-on eclosion response despite having a normal circadian eclosion rhythm. This study represents a novel approach to the dissection of neuropeptide regulation of a complex behavioral program.

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