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3582 Publications

Showing 3491-3500 of 3582 results
01/15/95 | Dendritic glutamate receptor channels in rat hippocampal CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons.
Spruston N, Jonas P, Sakmann B
J Physiol. 1995 Jan 15;482 ( Pt 2):325-52

1. Properties of dendritic glutamate receptor (GluR) channels were investigated using fast application of glutamate to outside-out membrane patches isolated from the apical dendrites of CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampal slices. CA3 patches were formed (15-76 microns from the soma) in the region of mossy fibre (MF) synapses, and CA1 patches (25-174 microns from the soma) in the region of Schaffer collateral (SC) innervation. 2. Dual-component responses consisting of a rapidly rising and decaying component followed by a second, substantially slower, component were elicited by 1 ms pulses of 1 mM glutamate in the presence of 10 microM glycine and absence of external Mg2+. The fast component was selectively blocked by 2-5 microM 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) and the slow component by 30 microM D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-AP5), suggesting that the fast and slow components were mediated by the GluR channels of the L-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) and NMDA type, respectively. The peak amplitude ratio of the NMDA to AMPA receptor-mediated components varied between 0.03 and 0.62 in patches from both CA3 and CA1 dendrites. Patches lacking either component were rarely observed. 3. The peak current-voltage (I-V) relationship of the fast component was almost linear, whereas the I-V relationship of the slow component showed a region of negative slope in the presence of 1 mM external Mg2+. The reversal potential for both components was close to 0 mV. 4. Kainate-preferring GluR channels did not contribute appreciably to the response to glutamate. The responses to 100 ms pulses of 1 mM glutamate were mimicked by application of 1 mM AMPA, whereas 1 mM kainate produced much smaller, weakly desensitizing currents. This suggests that the fast component is primarily mediated by the action of glutamate on AMPA-preferring receptors. 5. The mean elementary conductance of AMPA receptor channels was about 10 pS, as estimated by non-stationary fluctuation analysis. The permeability of these channels to Ca2+ was low (approximately 5% of the permeability to Cs+). 6. The elementary conductance of NMDA receptor channels was larger, with a main conductance state of about 45 pS. These channels were 3.6 times more permeable to Ca2+ than to Cs+.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

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01/01/95 | A persistent RNA-DNA hybrid is formed during transcription at a phylogenetically conserved mitochondrial DNA sequence.
Xu B, Clayton DA
Molecular and Cellular Biology. 1995 Jan;15(1):580-9. doi: 10.1101/gad.1352105

Critical features of the mitochondrial leading-strand DNA replication origin are conserved from Saccharomyces cerevisiae to humans. These include a promoter and a downstream GC-rich sequence block (CSBII) that encodes rGs within the primer RNA. During in vitro transcription at yeast mitochondrial replication origins, there is stable and persistent RNA-DNA hybrid formation that begins at the 5’ end of the rG region. The short rG-dC sequence is the necessary and sufficient nucleic acid element for establishing stable hybrids, and the presence of rGs within the RNA strand of the RNA-DNA hybrid is required. The efficiency of hybrid formation depends on the length of RNA synthesized 5’ to CSBII and the type of RNA polymerase employed. Once made, the RNA strand of an RNA-DNA hybrid can serve as an effective primer for mitochondrial DNA polymerase. These results reveal a new mechanism for persistent RNA-DNA hybrid formation and suggest a step in priming mitochondrial DNA replication that requires both mitochondrial RNA polymerase and an rG-dC sequence-specific event to form an extensive RNA-DNA hybrid.

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12/01/94 | A test of geometric hypotheses for soldier investment patterns in the gall producing tropical aphidCerataphis fransseni (Homoptera, Hormaphididae)
D. L. Stern , S. Aoki , U. Kurosu
Insectes sociaux;41(4):457-460. doi: 10.1007/BF01240648

The gall-forming aphidCerataphis fransseni produces soldiers that defend against predators. Soldiers are produced soon after colony foundation and the number of soldiers increases nonlinearly during colony growth. The number of soldiers scales to the square-root of the number of non-soldiers and linearly to the surface area of the gall. This suggests that soldiers are produced to defend an area, for example the perimeter of the colony or the surface of the gall, rather than individual aphids.

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12/01/94 | Neuropeptide induction of cyclic GMP increases in the insect CNS: resolution at the level of single identifiable neurons.
Ewer J, de Vente J, Truman JW
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 1994 Dec;14(12):7704-12

In insects, the neuropeptide eclosion hormone (EH) acts on the CNS to evoke the stereotyped behaviors that cause ecdysis, the shedding of the cuticle at the end of each molt. Concomitantly, EH induces an increase in cyclic GMP (cGMP). Using antibodies against this second messenger, we show that this increase is confined to a network of 50 peptidergic neurons distributed throughout the CNS. Increases appeared 30 min after EH treatment, spread rapidly throughout these neurons, and were extremely long lived. We show that this response is synaptically driven, and does not involve the soluble, nitric oxide (NO)-activated, guanylate cyclase. Stereotyped variations in the duration of the cGMP response among neurons suggest a role in coordinating responses having different latencies and durations.

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11/01/94 | A sublinear algorithm for approximate keyword matching.
Myers E
Algorithmica. 1994 Nov;12(4-5):345-74

Given a relatively short query stringW of lengthP, a long subject stringA of lengthN, and a thresholdD, theapproximate keyword search problem is to find all substrings ofA that align withW with not more than D insertions, deletions, and mismatches. In typical applications, such as searching a DNA sequence database, the size of the “database”A is much larger than that of the queryW, e.g.,N is on the order of millions or billions andP is a hundred to a thousand. In this paper we present an algorithm that given a precomputedindex of the databaseA, finds rare matches in time that issublinear inN, i.e.,N c for somec<1. The sequenceA must be overa. finite alphabet σ. More precisely, our algorithm requires 0(DN pow(ɛ)  logN) expected-time where ɛ=D/P is the maximum number of differences as a percentage of query length, and pow(ɛ) is an increasing and concave function that is 0 when ɛ=0. Thus the algorithm is superior to current O(DN) algorithms when ɛ is small enough to guarantee that pow(ɛ) < 1. As seen in the paper, this is true for a wide range of ɛ, e.g., ɛ. up to 33% for DNA sequences (¦⌆¦=4) and 56% for proteins sequences (¦⌆¦=20). In preliminary practical experiments, the approach gives a 50-to 500-fold improvement over previous algorithms for prolems of interest in molecular biology.

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Tjian LabRubin Lab
07/15/94 | The activities of two Ets-related transcription factors required for Drosophila eye development are modulated by the Ras/MAPK pathway.
O’Neill EM, Rebay I, Tjian R, Rubin GM
Cell. 1994 Jul 15;78(1):137-47. doi: 10.1186/gb-2007-8-7-r145

We show that the activities of two Ets-related transcription factors required for normal eye development in Drosophila, pointed and yan, are regulated by the Ras1/MAPK pathway. The pointed gene codes for two related proteins, and we show that one form is a constitutive activator of transcription, while the activity of the other form is stimulated by the Ras1/MAPK pathway. Mutation of the single consensus MAPK phosphorylation site in the second form abrogates this responsiveness. yan is a negative regulator of photoreceptor determination, and genetic data suggest that it acts as an antagonist of Ras1. We demonstrate that yan can repress transcription and that this repression activity is negatively regulated by the Ras1/MAPK signal, most likely through direct phosphorylation of yan by MAPK.

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06/17/94 | Near-field spectroscopy of the quantum constituents of a luminescent system.
Hess HF, Betzig E, Harris TD, Pfeiffer LN, West KW
Science. 1994 Jun 17;264(5166):1740-5. doi: 10.1126/science.264.5166.1740

Luminescent centers with sharp (<0.07 millielectron volt), spectrally distinct emission lines were imaged in a GaAs/AIGaAs quantum well by means of low-temperature near-field scanning optical microscopy. Temperature, magnetic field, and linewidth measurements establish that these centers arise from excitons laterally localized at interface fluctuations. For sufficiently narrow wells, virtually all emission originates from such centers. Near-field microscopy/spectroscopy provides a means to access energies and homogeneous line widths for the individual eigenstates of these centers, and thus opens a rich area of physics involving quantum resolved systems.

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06/17/94 | Near-field spectroscopy of the quantum constituents of a luminescent system. (With commentary)
Hess HF, Betzig E, Harris TD, Pfeiffer LN, West KW
Science. 1994 Jun 17;264(5166):1740-5. doi: 10.1126/science.264.5166.1740

Luminescent centers with sharp (<0.07 millielectron volt), spectrally distinct emission lines were imaged in a GaAs/AIGaAs quantum well by means of low-temperature near-field scanning optical microscopy. Temperature, magnetic field, and linewidth measurements establish that these centers arise from excitons laterally localized at interface fluctuations. For sufficiently narrow wells, virtually all emission originates from such centers. Near-field microscopy/spectroscopy provides a means to access energies and homogeneous line widths for the individual eigenstates of these centers, and thus opens a rich area of physics involving quantum resolved systems.

Commentary: Harald Hess and I joined forces, combining my near-field optical technology with his cryogenic scanned probe microscope to produce the first paper on high resolution spectroscopy beyond the diffraction limit. We discovered that the broad luminescence spectrum traditionally observed from quantum well heterostructures reflects a resolution-limited ensemble average of emission from numerous discrete sites of exciton recombination occurring at atomic-scale corrugations in the confining interfaces. With the combination of high spatial resolution from near-field excitation and high spectral resolution from cryogenic operation, we were able to isolate these emission sites in a multidimensional space of xy position and wavelength, even though their density was too great to isolate them on the basis of spatial resolution alone. This insight was very influential in the genesis of the concept (see above) that would eventually lead to far-field superresolution by PALM.

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06/04/94 | Mechanisms shaping glutamate-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents in the CNS.
Jonas P, Spruston N
Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1994 Jun;4(3):366-72

Excitatory postsynaptic currents in neurones of the central nervous system have a dual-component time course that results from the co-activation of AMPA/kainate-type and NMDA-type glutamate receptors. New approaches in electrophysiology and molecular biology have provided a better understanding of the factors that determine the kinetics of excitatory postsynaptic currents. Recent studies suggest that the time course of neurotransmitter concentration in the synaptic cleft, the gating properties of the native channels, and the glutamate receptor subunit composition all appear to be important factors.

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05/23/94 | A phylogenetic analysis of soldier evolution in the aphid family Hormaphididae.
Stern DL
Proc Biol Sci. 1994 May 23;256(1346):203-9. doi: 10.1098/rspb.1994.0071

Aphid soldiers, altruistic larvae that protect the colony from predators, are an example of highly social behaviour in an insect group with a natural history different from the eusocial Hymenoptera and Isoptera. Aphids therefore allow independent tests of theory developed to explain the evolution of eusociality. Although soldiers have been discovered in five tribes from two families, the number and pattern of origins and losses of soldiers is unknown due to a lack of phylogenetic data. Here I present a mtDNA based phylogeny for the Hormaphididae, and test the hypothesis that soldiers in the tribe Cerataphidini produced during two points in the life cycle represent independent origins. The results support this hypothesis. In addition, a minimum of five evolutionary events, either four origins and one loss or five origins, are required to explain the distribution of soldiers in the family. The positions of the origins and losses are well resolved, and this phylogeny provides an historical framework for studies on the causes of soldier aphid evolution.

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