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Satou Lab / Publications
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15 Publications

Showing 1-10 of 15 results
07/22/22 | A viral toolbox for conditional and transneuronal gene expression in zebrafish
Satou C, Neve RL, Oyibo HK, Zmarz P, Huang K, Arn Bouldoires E, Mori T, Higashijima S, Keller GB, Friedrich RW, Bagnall MW, Stainier DY, Jin L
eLife. 07/2022;11:e77153. doi: 10.7554/eLife.77153

The zebrafish is an important model in systems neuroscience but viral tools to dissect the structure and function of neuronal circuitry are not established. We developed methods for efficient gene transfer and retrograde tracing in adult and larval zebrafish by herpes simplex viruses (HSV1). HSV1 was combined with the Gal4/UAS system to target cell types with high spatial, temporal, and molecular specificity. We also established methods for efficient transneuronal tracing by modified rabies viruses in zebrafish. We demonstrate that HSV1 and rabies viruses can be used to visualize and manipulate genetically or anatomically identified neurons within and across different brain areas of adult and larval zebrafish. An expandable library of viruses is provided to express fluorescent proteins, calcium indicators, optogenetic probes, toxins and other molecular tools. This toolbox creates new opportunities to interrogate neuronal circuits in zebrafish through combinations of genetic and viral approaches.

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05/19/21 | Multimodal patterns of inhibitory activity in cerebellar cortex
Chie Satou , Rainer W. Friedrich
Neuron. 05/2021;109:1590-1592. doi:

In this issue of Neuron, Gurnani and Silver (2021) report that activity across Golgi cells, a major type of inhibitory interneuron in the cerebellar cortex, is multidimensional and modulated by behavior. These results suggest multiple functions for inhibition in cerebellar computations.

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03/03/20 | Functional Diversity of Glycinergic Commissural Inhibitory Neurons in Larval Zebrafish
Chie Satou , Takumi Sugioka , Yuto Uemura , Takashi Shimazaki , Pawel Zmarz , Yukiko Kimura , Shin-ichi Higashijima
Cell Reports. 03/2020;30:3036-3050.e4. doi:

Summary Commissural inhibitory neurons in the spinal cord of aquatic vertebrates coordinate left-right body alternation during swimming. Their developmental origin, however, has been elusive. We investigate this by comparing the anatomy and function of two commissural inhibitory neuron types, dI6dmrt3a and V0d, derived from the pd6 and p0 progenitor domains, respectively. We find that both of these commissural neuron types have monosynaptic, inhibitory connections to neuronal populations active during fictive swimming, supporting their role in providing inhibition to the contralateral side. V0d neurons tend to fire during faster and stronger movements, while dI6dmrt3a neurons tend to fire more consistently during normal fictive swimming. Ablation of dI6dmrt3a neurons leads to an impairment of left-right alternating activity through abnormal co-activation of ventral root neurons on both sides of the spinal cord. Our results suggest that dI6dmrt3a and V0d commissural inhibitory neurons synergistically provide inhibition to the opposite side across different swimming behaviors.

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11/22/19 | Associative conditioning remaps odor representations and modifies inhibition in a higher olfactory brain area.
Frank T, Mönig NR, Satou C, Higashijima S, Friedrich RW
Nat Neurosci. 11/2019;22(11):1844-1856. doi: 10.1038/s41593-019-0495-z

Intelligent behavior involves associations between high-dimensional sensory representations and behaviorally relevant qualities such as valence. Learning of associations involves plasticity of excitatory connectivity, but it remains poorly understood how information flow is reorganized in networks and how inhibition contributes to this process. We trained adult zebrafish in an appetitive odor discrimination task and analyzed odor representations in a specific compartment of the posterior zone of the dorsal telencephalon (Dp), the homolog of mammalian olfactory cortex. Associative conditioning enhanced responses with a preference for the positively conditioned odor. Moreover, conditioning systematically remapped odor representations along an axis in coding space that represented attractiveness (valence). Interindividual variations in this mapping predicted variations in behavioral odor preference. Photoinhibition of interneurons resulted in specific modifications of odor representations that mirrored effects of conditioning and reduced experience-dependent, interindividual variations in odor-valence mapping. These results reveal an individualized odor-to-valence map that is shaped by inhibition and reorganized during learning.

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09/03/13 | Transgenic tools to characterize neuronal properties of discrete populations of zebrafish neurons
Satou C, Kimura Y, Hirata H, Suster ML, Kawakami K, Higashijima S
Development. 09/2013;140:3927-3931. doi: 10.1242/dev.099531

The developing nervous system consists of a variety of cell types. Transgenic animals expressing reporter genes in specific classes of neuronal cells are powerful tools for the study of neuronal network formation. We generated a wide variety of transgenic zebrafish that expressed reporter genes in specific classes of neurons or neuronal progenitors. These include lines in which neurons of specific neurotransmitter phenotypes expressed fluorescent proteins or Gal4, and lines in which specific subsets of the dorsal progenitor domain in the spinal cord expressed fluorescent proteins. Using these, we examined domain organization in the developing dorsal spinal cord, and found that there are six progenitor domains in zebrafish, which is similar to the domain organization in mice. We also systematically characterized neurotransmitter properties of the neurons that are produced from each domain. Given that reporter gene expressions occurs in a wide area of the nervous system in the lines generated, these transgenic fish should serve as powerful tools for the investigation of not only the neurons in the dorsal spinal cord but also neuronal structures and functions in many other regions of the nervous system.

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05/20/13 | Hindbrain V2a Neurons in the Excitation of Spinal Locomotor Circuits during Zebrafish Swimming
Yukiko Kimura , Chie Satou , Shunji Fujioka , Wataru Shoji , Keiko Umeda , Toru Ishizuka , Hiromu Yawo , Shin-ichi Higashijima
Current Biology. 05/2013;23:843-849. doi:

During locomotion in vertebrates, reticulospinal neurons in the hindbrain play critical roles in providing descending excitation to the spinal cord locomotor systems. However, despite the fact that many genes that are used to classify the neuronal identities of neurons in the hindbrain have been identified, the molecular identity of the reticulospinal neurons that are critically involved in locomotor drive is not well understood. Chx10-expressing neurons (V2a neurons) are ipsilaterally projecting glutamatergic neurons in the spinal cord and the hindbrain. Many of the V2a neurons in the hindbrain are known to project to the spinal cord in zebrafish, making hindbrain V2a neurons a prime candidate in descending locomotor drive. Results We investigated the roles of hindbrain V2a neurons using optogenetic and electrophysiological approaches. The forced activation of hindbrain V2a neurons using channelrhodopsin efficiently evoked swimming, whereas the forced inactivation of them using Archearhodopsin3 or Halorhodpsin reliably stopped ongoing swimming. Electrophysiological recordings of two populations of hindbrain reticulospinal V2a neurons showed that they were active during swimming. One population of neurons, small V2a neurons in the caudal hindbrain, fired with low rhythmicity, whereas the other population of neurons, large reticulospinal V2a neurons, called MiV1 neurons, fired more rhythmically. Conclusions These results indicated that hindbrain reticulospinal V2a neurons play critical roles in providing excitation to the spinal locomotor circuits during swimming by providing both tonic and phasic inputs to the circuits.

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02/01/12 | Generation of Multiple Classes of V0 Neurons in Zebrafish Spinal Cord: Progenitor Heterogeneity and Temporal Control of Neuronal Diversity
Chie Satou , Yukiko Kimura , Shin-ichi Higashijima
Journal of Neuroscience. 02/2012;32:1771–1783. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5500-11.2012

The developing spinal cord is subdivided into distinct progenitor domains, each of which gives rise to different types of neurons. However, the developmental mechanisms responsible for generating neuronal diversity within a domain are not well understood. Here, we have studied zebrafish V0 neurons, those that derive from the p0 progenitor domain, to address this question. We find that all V0 neurons have commissural axons, but they can be divided into excitatory and inhibitory classes. V0 excitatory neurons (V0-e) can be further categorized into three groups based on their axonal trajectories; V0-eA (ascending), V0-eB (bifurcating), and V0-eD (descending) neurons. By using time-lapse imaging of p0 progenitors and their progeny, we show that inhibitory and excitatory neurons are produced from different progenitors. We also demonstrate that V0-eA neurons are produced from distinct progenitors, while V0-eB and V0-eD neurons are produced from common progenitors. We then use birth-date analysis to reveal that V0-eA, V0-eB, and V0-eD neurons arise in this order. By perturbing Notch signaling and accelerating neuronal differentiation, we predictably alter the generation of early born V0-e neurons at the expense of later born ones. These results suggest that multiple types of V0 neurons are produced by two distinct mechanisms; from heterogeneous p0 progenitors and from the same p0 progenitor, but in a time-dependent manner.

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01/24/12 | Transcriptional signature of accessory cells in the lateral line, using the Tnk1bp1:EGFP transgenic zebrafish line
Behra M, Gallardo V, Bradsher J, Torrado A, Elkahloun A, Idol J, Sheehy J, Zonies S, Xu L, Shaw K, Satou C, Higashijima S, Weinstein B, Burgess S
BMC developmental biology. 01/2012;12:6. doi: 10.1186/1471-213X-12-6

Background: Because of the structural and molecular similarities between the two systems, the lateral line, a fish and amphibian specific sensory organ, has been widely used in zebrafish as a model to study the development/biology of neuroepithelia of the inner ear. Both organs have hair cells, which are the mechanoreceptor cells, and supporting cells providing other functions to the epithelium. In most vertebrates (excluding mammals), supporting cells comprise a pool of progenitors that replace damaged or dead hair cells. However, the lack of regenerative capacity in mammals is the single leading cause for acquired hearing disorders in humans.

Results: In an effort to understand the regenerative process of hair cells in fish, we characterized and cloned an egfp transgenic stable fish line that trapped tnks1bp1, a highly conserved gene that has been implicated in the maintenance of telomeres' length. We then used this Tg(tnks1bp1:EGFP) line in a FACsorting strategy combined with microarrays to identify new molecular markers for supporting cells.

Conclusions: We present a Tg(tnks1bp1:EGFP) stable transgenic line, which we used to establish a transcriptional profile of supporting cells in the zebrafish lateral line. Therefore we are providing a new set of markers specific for supporting cells as well as candidates for functional analysis of this important cell type. This will prove to be a valuable tool for the study of regeneration in the lateral line of zebrafish in particular and for regeneration of neuroepithelia in general.

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03/15/11 | Compartmentalized Notch signaling sustains epithelial mirror symmetry
Wibowo I, Pinto-Teixeira F, Satou C, Higashijima S, López-Schier H
Development. 03/2011;138:1143-1152. doi: 10.1242/dev.060566

Bilateral symmetric tissues must interpret axial references to maintain their global architecture during growth or repair. The regeneration of hair cells in the zebrafish lateral line, for example, forms a vertical midline that bisects the neuromast epithelium into perfect mirror-symmetric plane-polarized halves. Each half contains hair cells of identical planar orientation but opposite to that of the confronting half. The establishment of bilateral symmetry in this organ is poorly understood. Here, we show that hair-cell regeneration is strongly directional along an axis perpendicular to that of epithelial planar polarity. We demonstrate compartmentalized Notch signaling in neuromasts, and show that directional regeneration depends on the development of hair-cell progenitors in polar compartments that have low Notch activity. High-resolution live cell tracking reveals a novel process of planar cell inversions whereby sibling hair cells invert positions immediately after progenitor cytokinesis, demonstrating that oriented progenitor divisions are dispensable for bilateral symmetry. Notwithstanding the invariably directional regeneration, the planar polarization of the epithelium eventually propagates symmetrically because mature hair cells move away from the midline towards the periphery of the neuromast. We conclude that a strongly anisotropic regeneration process that relies on the dynamic stabilization of progenitor identity in permissive polar compartments sustains bilateral symmetry in the lateral line.

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01/18/11 | Mapping a sensory-motor network onto a structural and functional ground plan in the hindbrain.
Koyama M, Kinkhabwala A, Satou C, Higashijima S, Fetcho J
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2011 Jan 18;108(3):1170-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1012189108

The hindbrain of larval zebrafish contains a relatively simple ground plan in which the neurons throughout it are arranged into stripes that represent broad neuronal classes that differ in transmitter identity, morphology, and transcription factor expression. Within the stripes, neurons are stacked continuously according to age as well as structural and functional properties, such as axonal extent, input resistance, and the speed at which they are recruited during movements. Here we address the question of how particular networks among the many different sensory-motor networks in hindbrain arise from such an orderly plan. We use a combination of transgenic lines and pairwise patch recording to identify excitatory and inhibitory interneurons in the hindbrain network for escape behaviors initiated by the Mauthner cell. We map this network onto the ground plan to show that an individual hindbrain network is built by drawing components in predictable ways from the underlying broad patterning of cell types stacked within stripes according to their age and structural and functional properties. Many different specialized hindbrain networks may arise similarly from a simple early patterning.

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