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51 Publications

Showing 21-30 of 51 results
Cardona LabFunke LabFlyEM
11/18/15 | Who is talking to whom: Synaptic partner detection in anisotropic volumes of insect brain.
Kreshuk A, Funke J, Cardona A, Hamprecht FA
Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention -- MICCAI 2015:661-8. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-24553-9_81

Automated reconstruction of neural connectivity graphs from electron microscopy image stacks is an essential step towards large-scale neural circuit mapping. While significant progress has recently been made in automated segmentation of neurons and detection of synapses, the problem of synaptic partner assignment for polyadic (one-to-many) synapses, prevalent in the Drosophila brain, remains unsolved. In this contribution, we propose a method which automatically assigns pre- and postsynaptic roles to neurites adjacent to a synaptic site. The method constructs a probabilistic graphical model over potential synaptic partner pairs which includes factors to account for a high rate of one-to-many connections, as well as the possibility of the same neuron to be pre-synaptic in one synapse and post-synaptic in another. The algorithm has been validated on a publicly available stack of ssTEM images of Drosophila neural tissue and has been shown to reconstruct most of the synaptic relations correctly.

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11/03/15 | Synaptic circuits and their variations within different columns in the visual system of Drosophila.
Takemura S, Xu CS, Lu Z, Rivlin PK, Parag T, Olbris DJ, Plaza S, Zhao T, Katz WT, Umayam L, Weaver C, Hess HF, Horne JA, Nunez-Iglesias J, Aniceto R, Chang L, Lauchie S, Nasca A, Ogundeyi O, Sigmund C, Takemura S, Tran J, Langille C, Le Lacheur K, McLin S, Shinomiya A, Chklovskii DB, Meinertzhagen IA, Scheffer LK
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2015 Nov 3;112(44):13711-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1509820112

We reconstructed the synaptic circuits of seven columns in the second neuropil or medulla behind the fly's compound eye. These neurons embody some of the most stereotyped circuits in one of the most miniaturized of animal brains. The reconstructions allow us, for the first time to our knowledge, to study variations between circuits in the medulla's neighboring columns. This variation in the number of synapses and the types of their synaptic partners has previously been little addressed because methods that visualize multiple circuits have not resolved detailed connections, and existing connectomic studies, which can see such connections, have not so far examined multiple reconstructions of the same circuit. Here, we address the omission by comparing the circuits common to all seven columns to assess variation in their connection strengths and the resultant rates of several different and distinct types of connection error. Error rates reveal that, overall, <1% of contacts are not part of a consensus circuit, and we classify those contacts that supplement (E+) or are missing from it (E-). Autapses, in which the same cell is both presynaptic and postsynaptic at the same synapse, are occasionally seen; two cells in particular, Dm9 and Mi1, form ≥20-fold more autapses than do other neurons. These results delimit the accuracy of developmental events that establish and normally maintain synaptic circuits with such precision, and thereby address the operation of such circuits. They also establish a precedent for error rates that will be required in the new science of connectomics.

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Chklovskii LabFlyEM
08/06/15 | Automatic adaptation to fast input changes in a time-invariant neural circuit.
Bharioke A, Chklovskii DB
PLoS Computational Biology. 2015 Aug 6;11(8):e1004315. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004315
07/09/15 | A common evolutionary origin for the ON- and OFF-edge motion detection pathways of the Drosophila visual system.
Shinomiya K, Takemura S, Rivlin PK, Plaza SM, Scheffer LK, Meinertzhagen IA
Frontiers in Neural Circuits. 2015;9:33. doi: 10.3389/fncir.2015.00033

Synaptic circuits for identified behaviors in the Drosophila brain have typically been considered from either a developmental or functional perspective without reference to how the circuits might have been inherited from ancestral forms. For example, two candidate pathways for ON- and OFF-edge motion detection in the visual system act via circuits that use respectively either T4 or T5, two cell types of the fourth neuropil, or lobula plate (LOP), that exhibit narrow-field direction-selective responses and provide input to wide-field tangential neurons. T4 or T5 both have four subtypes that terminate one each in the four strata of the LOP. Representatives are reported in a wide range of Diptera, and both cell types exhibit various similarities in: (1) the morphology of their dendritic arbors; (2) their four morphological and functional subtypes; (3) their cholinergic profile in Drosophila; (4) their input from the pathways of L3 cells in the first neuropil, or lamina (LA), and by one of a pair of LA cells, L1 (to the T4 pathway) and L2 (to the T5 pathway); and (5) their innervation by a single, wide-field contralateral tangential neuron from the central brain. Progenitors of both also express the gene atonal early in their proliferation from the inner anlage of the developing optic lobe, being alone among many other cell type progeny to do so. Yet T4 receives input in the second neuropil, or medulla (ME), and T5 in the third neuropil or lobula (LO). Here we suggest that these two cell types were originally one, that their ancestral cell population duplicated and split to innervate separate ME and LO neuropils, and that a fiber crossing-the internal chiasma-arose between the two neuropils. The split most plausibly occurred, we suggest, with the formation of the LO as a new neuropil that formed when it separated from its ancestral neuropil to leave the ME, suggesting additionally that ME input neurons to T4 and T5 may also have had a common origin.

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05/20/15 | Solving the third-shift problem in ic piracy with test-aware logic locking.
Plaza SM, Markov IL
IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems. 2015 Jun;34(6):961-71. doi: 10.1109/TCAD.2015.2404876

The increasing IC manufacturing cost encourages a business model where design houses outsource IC fabrication to remote foundries. Despite cost savings, this model exposes design houses to IC piracy as remote foundries can manufacture in excess to sell on the black market. Recent efforts in digital hardware security aim to thwart piracy by using XOR-based chip locking, cryptography, and active metering. To counter direct attacks and lower the exposure of unlocked circuits to the foundry, we introduce a multiplexor-based locking strategy that preserves test response allowing IC testing by an untrusted party before activation. We demonstrate a simple yet effective attack against a locked circuit that does not preserve test response, and validate the effectiveness of our locking strategy on IWLS 2005 benchmarks.

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Zlatic LabFetter LabBranson LabSimpson LabTruman LabCardona LabFlyEM
04/20/15 | A multilevel multimodal circuit enhances action selection in Drosophila.
Ohyama T, Schneider-Mizell CM, Fetter RD, Aleman JV, Franconville R, Rivera-Alba M, Mensh BD, Branson KM, Simpson JH, Truman JW, Cardona A, Zlatic M
Nature. 2015 Apr 20;520(7549):633-9. doi: 10.1038/nature14297

Natural events present multiple types of sensory cues, each detected by a specialized sensory modality. Combining information from several modalities is essential for the selection of appropriate actions. Key to understanding multimodal computations is determining the structural patterns of multimodal convergence and how these patterns contribute to behaviour. Modalities could converge early, late or at multiple levels in the sensory processing hierarchy. Here we show that combining mechanosensory and nociceptive cues synergistically enhances the selection of the fastest mode of escape locomotion in Drosophila larvae. In an electron microscopy volume that spans the entire insect nervous system, we reconstructed the multisensory circuit supporting the synergy, spanning multiple levels of the sensory processing hierarchy. The wiring diagram revealed a complex multilevel multimodal convergence architecture. Using behavioural and physiological studies, we identified functionally connected circuit nodes that trigger the fastest locomotor mode, and others that facilitate it, and we provide evidence that multiple levels of multimodal integration contribute to escape mode selection. We propose that the multilevel multimodal convergence architecture may be a general feature of multisensory circuits enabling complex input–output functions and selective tuning to ecologically relevant combinations of cues.

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Hess LabFetter LabFlyEM
02/16/15 | Ultrastructurally smooth thick partitioning and volume stitching for large-scale connectomics.
Hayworth KJ, Xu CS, Lu Z, Knott GW, Fetter RD, Tapia JC, Lichtman JW, Hess HF
Nature Methods. 2015 Feb 16;12(4):319-22. doi: 10.1038/nmeth.3292

Focused-ion-beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) has become an essential tool for studying neural tissue at resolutions below 10 nm × 10 nm × 10 nm, producing data sets optimized for automatic connectome tracing. We present a technical advance, ultrathick sectioning, which reliably subdivides embedded tissue samples into chunks (20 μm thick) optimally sized and mounted for efficient, parallel FIB-SEM imaging. These chunks are imaged separately and then 'volume stitched' back together, producing a final three-dimensional data set suitable for connectome tracing.

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02/01/15 | Connectome of the fly visual circuitry.
Takemura S
Microscopy. 2015 Feb;64(1):37-44. doi: 10.1093/jmicro/dfu102

Recent powerful tools for reconstructing connectomes using electron microscopy (EM) have made outstanding contributions to the field of neuroscience. As a prime example, the detection of visual motion is a classic problem of neural computation, yet our understanding of the exact mechanism has been frustrated by our incomplete knowledge of the relevant neurons and synapses. Recent connectomic studies have successfully identified the concrete neuronal circuit in the fly's visual system that computes the motion signals. This identification was greatly aided by the comprehensiveness of the EM reconstruction. Compared with light microscopy, which gives estimated connections from arbor overlap, EM gives unequivocal connections with precise synaptic counts. This paper reviews the recent study of connectomics in a brain of the fruit fly Drosophila and highlights how connectomes can provide a foundation for understanding the mechanism of neuronal functions by identifying the underlying neural circuits.

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01/08/15 | Protecting integrated circuits from piracy with test-aware logic locking.
Plaza SM, Markov IL
IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design, Digest of Technical Papers, ICCAD. 2015-01-08:262-269. doi: 10.1109/ICCAD.2014.7001361

The increasing IC manufacturing cost encourages a business model where design houses outsource IC fabrication to remote foundries. Despite cost savings, this model exposes design houses to IC piracy as remote foundries can manufacture in excess to sell on the black market. Recent efforts in digital hardware security aim to thwart piracy by using XOR-based chip locking, cryptography, and active metering. To counter direct attacks and lower the exposure of unlocked circuits to the foundry, we introduce a multiplexor-based locking strategy that preserves test response allowing IC testing by an untrusted party before activation. We demonstrate a simple yet effective attack against a locked circuit that does not preserve test response, and validate the effectiveness of our locking strategy on IWLS 2005 benchmarks.

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12/28/14 | Neural computation for rehabilitation.
Hu X, Wang Y, Zhao T, Gunduz A
Biomed Research International. 2014;2014:603985. doi: 10.1155/2014/603985