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1420 Janelia Publications

Showing 11-20 of 1420 results
09/06/18 | Integration of parallel opposing memories underlies memory extinction.
Felsenberg J, Jacob PF, Walker T, Barnstedt O, Edmondson-Stait AJ, Pleijzier MW, Otto N, Schlegel P, Sharifi N, Perisse E, Smith CS, Lauritzen JS, Costa M, Jefferis GS, Bock DD, Waddell S
Cell. 2018 Sep 06:. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2018.08.021

Accurately predicting an outcome requires that animals learn supporting and conflicting evidence from sequential experience. In mammals and invertebrates, learned fear responses can be suppressed by experiencing predictive cues without punishment, a process called memory extinction. Here, we show that extinction of aversive memories in Drosophila requires specific dopaminergic neurons, which indicate that omission of punishment is remembered as a positive experience. Functional imaging revealed co-existence of intracellular calcium traces in different places in the mushroom body output neuron network for both the original aversive memory and a new appetitive extinction memory. Light and ultrastructural anatomy are consistent with parallel competing memories being combined within mushroom body output neurons that direct avoidance. Indeed, extinction-evoked plasticity in a pair of these neurons neutralizes the potentiated odor response imposed in the network by aversive learning. Therefore, flies track the accuracy of learned expectations by accumulating and integrating memories of conflicting events.

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09/05/18 | Defective cortex glia plasma membrane structure underlies light-induced epilepsy in mutants.
Kunduri G, Turner-Evans D, Konya Y, Izumi Y, Nagashima K, Lockett S, Holthuis J, Bamba T, Acharya U, Acharya JK
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2018 Sep 05:. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1808463115

Seizures induced by visual stimulation (photosensitive epilepsy; PSE) represent a common type of epilepsy in humans, but the molecular mechanisms and genetic drivers underlying PSE remain unknown, and no good genetic animal models have been identified as yet. Here, we show an animal model of PSE, in , owing to defective cortex glia. The cortex glial membranes are severely compromised in ceramide phosphoethanolamine synthase ()-null mutants and fail to encapsulate the neuronal cell bodies in the neuronal cortex. Expression of human sphingomyelin synthase 1, which synthesizes the closely related ceramide phosphocholine (sphingomyelin), rescues the cortex glial abnormalities and PSE, underscoring the evolutionarily conserved role of these lipids in glial membranes. Further, we show the compromise in plasma membrane structure that underlies the glial cell membrane collapse in mutants and leads to the PSE phenotype.

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09/03/18 | Topographic precision in sensory and motor corticostriatal projections varies across cell type and cortical area.
Hooks BM, Papale AE, Paletzki RF, Feroze MW, Eastwood BS, Couey JJ, Winnubst J, Chandrashekar J, Gerfen CR
Nature Communications. 2018 Sep 03;9(1):3549. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-05780-7

The striatum shows general topographic organization and regional differences in behavioral functions. How corticostriatal topography differs across cortical areas and cell types to support these distinct functions is unclear. This study contrasted corticostriatal projections from two layer 5 cell types, intratelencephalic (IT-type) and pyramidal tract (PT-type) neurons, using viral vectors expressing fluorescent reporters in Cre-driver mice. Corticostriatal projections from sensory and motor cortex are somatotopic, with a decreasing topographic specificity as injection sites move from sensory to motor and frontal areas. Topographic organization differs between IT-type and PT-type neurons, including injections in the same site, with IT-type neurons having higher topographic stereotypy than PT-type neurons. Furthermore, IT-type projections from interconnected cortical areas have stronger correlations in corticostriatal targeting than PT-type projections do. As predicted by a longstanding model, corticostriatal projections of interconnected cortical areas form parallel circuits in the basal ganglia.

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08/29/18 | Cell-specific chemical delivery using a selective Nitroreductase-Nitroaryl pair.
Gruber TD, Krishnamurthy C, Grimm JB, Tadross MR, Wysocki LM, Gartner ZJ, Lavis LD
ACS Chemical Biology. 2018 Aug 29:. doi: 10.1021/acschembio.8b00524

The utility of small molecules to probe or perturb biological systems is limited by the lack of cell-specificity. "Masking" the activity of small molecules using a general chemical modification and "unmasking" it only within target cells overcomes this limitation. To this end, we have developed a selective enzyme-substrate pair consisting of engineered variants of E. coli nitroreductase (NTR) and a 2-nitro- N-methylimidazolyl (NM) masking group. To discover and optimize this NTR-NM system, we synthesized a series of fluorogenic substrates containing different nitroaromatic masking groups, confirmed their stability in cells, and identified the best substrate for NTR. We then engineered the enzyme for improved activity in mammalian cells, ultimately yielding an enzyme variant (enhanced NTR, or eNTR) that possesses up to 100-fold increased activity over wild-type NTR. These improved NTR enzymes combined with the optimal NM masking group enable rapid, selective unmasking of dyes, indicators, and drugs to genetically defined populations of cells.

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08/27/18 | Macropinosome formation by tent pole ruffling in macrophages.
Condon ND, Heddleston JM, Chew T, Luo L, McPherson PS, Ioannou MS, Hodgson L, Stow JL, Wall AA
The Journal of Cell Biology. 2018 Aug 27:. doi: 10.1083/jcb.201804137

Pathogen-mediated activation of macrophages arms innate immune responses that include enhanced surface ruffling and macropinocytosis for environmental sampling and receptor internalization and signaling. Activation of macrophages with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) generates prominent dorsal ruffles, which are precursors for macropinosomes. Very rapid, high-resolution imaging of live macrophages with lattice light sheet microscopy (LLSM) reveals new features and actions of dorsal ruffles, which redefine the process of macropinosome formation and closure. We offer a new model in which ruffles are erected and supported by F-actin tent poles that cross over and twist to constrict the forming macropinosomes. This process allows for formation of large macropinosomes induced by LPS. We further describe the enrichment of active Rab13 on tent pole ruffles and show that CRISPR deletion of Rab13 results in aberrant tent pole ruffles and blocks the formation of large LPS-induced macropinosomes. Based on the exquisite temporal and spatial resolution of LLSM, we can redefine the ruffling and macropinosome processes that underpin innate immune responses.

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08/24/18 | Anterolateral motor cortex connects with a medial subdivision of ventromedial thalamus through cell-type-specific circuits, forming an excitatory thalamo-cortico-thalamic loop via layer 1 apical tuft dendrites of layer 5B pyramidal tract type neurons.
Guo K, Yamawaki N, Svoboda K, Shepherd GM
The Journal of Neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2018 Aug 24:. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1333-18.2018

The anterolateral motor cortex (ALM) and ventromedial (VM) thalamus are functionally linked to support persistent activity during motor planning. We analyzed the underlying synaptic interconnections using optogenetics and electrophysiology in mice (♀/♂). In cortex, thalamocortical (TC) axons from VM excited VM-projecting pyramidal-tract (PT) neurons in layer 5B of ALM. These axons also strongly excited layer 2/3 neurons (which strongly excite PT neurons, as previously shown) but not VM-projecting corticothalamic (CT) neurons in layer 6. The strongest connections in the VM→PT circuit were localized to apical-tuft dendrites of PT neurons, in layer 1. These tuft inputs were selectively augmented after blocking hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels. In thalamus, axons from ALM PT neurons excited ALM-projecting VM neurons, located medially in VM. These axons provided weak input to neurons in mediodorsal nucleus, and little or no input either to neurons in the GABAergic reticular thalamic nucleus or to neurons in VM projecting to primary motor cortex (M1). Conversely, M1 PT axons excited M1- but not ALM-projecting VM neurons. Our findings indicate, first, a set of cell-type-specific connections forming an excitatory thalamo-cortico-thalamic (T-C-T) loop for ALM↔VM communication and a circuit-level substrate for supporting reverberant activity in this system. Second, a key feature of this loop is the prominent involvement of layer 1 synapses onto apical dendrites, a subcellular compartment with distinct signaling properties, including HCN-mediated gain control. Third, the segregation of the ALM↔VM loop from M1-related circuits of VM adds cellular-level support for the concept of parallel pathway organization in the motor system.Anterolateral motor cortex (ALM), a higher-order motor area in the mouse, and ventromedial thalamus (VM) are anatomically and functionally linked, but their synaptic interconnections at the cellular level are unknown. Our results show that ALM pyramidal tract neurons monosynaptically excite ALM-projecting thalamocortical neurons in a medial subdivision of VM, and vice versa. The thalamo-cortico-thalamic loop formed by these recurrent connections constitutes a circuit-level substrate for supporting reverberant activity in this system.

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08/20/18 | Building a functional connectome of the central complex.
Franconville R, Beron C, Jayaraman V
eLife. 2018 Aug 20;7:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.37017

The central complex is a highly conserved insect brain region composed of morphologically stereotyped neurons that arborize in distinctively shaped substructures. The region is implicated in a wide range of behaviors and several modeling studies have explored its circuit computations. Most studies have relied on assumptions about connectivity between neurons based on their overlap in light microscopy images. Here, we present an extensive functional connectome of Drosophila melanogaster's central complex at cell-type resolution. Using simultaneous optogenetic stimulation, calcium imaging and pharmacology, we tested the connectivity between 70 presynaptic-to-postsynaptic cell-type pairs. We identi1ed numerous inputs to the central complex, but only a small number of output channels. Additionally, the connectivity of this highly recurrent circuit appears to be sparser than anticipated from light microscopy images. Finally, the connectivity matrix highlights the potentially critical role of a class of bottleneck interneurons. All data is provided for interactive exploration on a website.

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08/20/18 | In vivo measurement of afferent activity with axon-specific calcium imaging.
Broussard GJ, Liang Y, Fridman M, Unger EK, Meng G, Xiao X, Ji N, Petreanu L, Tian L
Nature Neuroscience. 2018 Aug 20:. doi: 10.1038/s41593-018-0211-4

In vivo calcium imaging from axons provides direct interrogation of afferent neural activity, informing the neural representations that a local circuit receives. Unlike in somata and dendrites, axonal recording of neural activity-both electrically and optically-has been difficult to achieve, thus preventing comprehensive understanding of neuronal circuit function. Here we developed an active transportation strategy to enrich GCaMP6, a genetically encoded calcium indicator, uniformly in axons with sufficient brightness, signal-to-noise ratio, and photostability to allow robust, structure-specific imaging of presynaptic activity in awake mice. Axon-targeted GCaMP6 enables frame-to-frame correlation for motion correction in axons and permits subcellular-resolution recording of axonal activity in previously inaccessible deep-brain areas. We used axon-targeted GCaMP6 to record layer-specific local afferents without contamination from somata or from intermingled dendrites in the cortex. We expect that axon-targeted GCaMP6 will facilitate new applications in investigating afferent signals relayed by genetically defined neuronal populations within and across specific brain regions.

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08/20/18 | Multiple animals tracking in video using part affinity fields
Rodriguez IF, Megret R, Egnor R, Branson K, Agosto JL, Giray T, Acuna E
Visual observation and analysis of Vertebrate And Insect Behavior 2018. 2018 Aug 20:

In this work, we address the problem of pose detection and tracking of multiple individuals for the study of behaviour in insects and animals. Using a Deep Neural Network architecture, precise detection and association of the body parts can be performed. The models are learned based on user-annotated training videos, which gives flexibility to the approach. This is illustrated on two different animals: honeybees and mice, where very good performance in part recognition and association are observed despite the presence of multiple interacting individuals.

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08/17/18 | mTOR-dependent phosphorylation controls TFEB nuclear export.
Napolitano G, Esposito A, Choi H, Matarese M, Benedetti V, Di Malta C, Monfregola J, Medina DL, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Ballabio A
Nature Communications. 2018 Aug 17;9(1):3312. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-05862-6

During starvation the transcriptional activation of catabolic processes is induced by the nuclear translocation and consequent activation of transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master modulator of autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis. However, how TFEB is inactivated upon nutrient refeeding is currently unknown. Here we show that TFEB subcellular localization is dynamically controlled by its continuous shuttling between the cytosol and the nucleus, with the nuclear export representing a limiting step. TFEB nuclear export is mediated by CRM1 and is modulated by nutrient availability via mTOR-dependent hierarchical multisite phosphorylation of serines S142 and S138, which are localized in proximity of a nuclear export signal (NES). Our data on TFEB nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling suggest an unpredicted role of mTOR in nuclear export.

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