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2 Janelia Publications

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    07/26/17 | Recent progress in the 3D reconstruction of Drosophila neural circuits.
    Shinomiya K, Ito M
    Decoding Neural Circuit Structure and Function:63-89. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-57363-2_3

    The brain of fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been used as a model system for functional analysis of neuronal circuits, including connectomics research, due to its modest size (~700 μm) and availability of abundant molecular genetics tools for visualizing neurons. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of high-resolution images of neurons or circuits visualized with appropriate methods is a critical step for obtaining information such as morphology and connectivity patterns of neuronal circuits. In this chapter, we introduce methods for generating 3D reconstructed images with data acquired from confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) or electron microscopy (EM) to analyze neuronal circuits found in the central nervous system (CNS) of the fruit fly. Comparisons of different algorithms and strategies for reconstructing neuronal circuits, using actual studies as references, will be discussed within this chapter.

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    07/13/17 | Mapping the neural substrates of behavior.
    Robie AA, Hirokawa J, Edwards AW, Umayam LA, Lee A, Phillips ML, Card GM, Korff W, Rubin GM, Simpson JH, Reiser MB, Branson KM
    Cell. 2017-07-13;170(2):393-406. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.06.032

    Assigning behavioral functions to neural structures has long been a central goal in neuroscience and is a necessary first step toward a circuit-level understanding of how the brain generates behavior. Here, we map the neural substrates of locomotion and social behaviors for Drosophila melanogaster using automated machine-vision and machine-learning techniques. From videos of 400,000 flies, we quantified the behavioral effects of activating 2,204 genetically targeted populations of neurons. We combined a novel quantification of anatomy with our behavioral analysis to create brain-behavior correlation maps, which are shared as browsable web pages and interactive software. Based on these maps, we generated hypotheses of regions of the brain causally related to sensory processing, locomotor control, courtship, aggression, and sleep. Our maps directly specify genetic tools to target these regions, which we used to identify a small population of neurons with a role in the control of walking.

    •We developed machine-vision methods to broadly and precisely quantify fly behavior•We measured effects of activating 2,204 genetically targeted neuronal populations•We created whole-brain maps of neural substrates of locomotor and social behaviors•We created resources for exploring our results and enabling further investigation

    Machine-vision analyses of large behavior and neuroanatomy data reveal whole-brain maps of regions associated with numerous complex behaviors.

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