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18 Janelia Publications

Showing 11-18 of 18 results
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    Svoboda LabMouseLight
    03/12/19 | Single-neuron axonal reconstruction: The search for a wiring diagram of the brain.
    Economo MN, Winnubst J, Bas E, Ferreira TA, Chandrashekar J
    The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 2019 Mar 12:. doi: 10.1002/cne.24674

    Reconstruction of the axonal projection patterns of single neurons has been an important tool for understanding both the diversity of cell types in the brain and the logic of information flow between brain regions. Innovative approaches now enable the complete reconstruction of axonal projection patterns of individual neurons with vastly increased throughput. Here we review how advances in genetic, imaging, and computational techniques have been exploited for axonal reconstruction. We also discuss how new innovations could enable the integration of genetic and physiological information with axonal morphology for producing a census of cell types in the mammalian brain at scale. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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    03/12/19 | Split-QF system for fine-tuned transgene expression in Drosophila.
    Riabinina O, Vernon SW, Dickson BJ, Baines RA
    Genetics. 2019 Mar 12;212(1):53-63. doi: 10.1534/genetics.119.302034

    The Q-system is a binary expression system that works well across species. Here we report the development and demonstrate applications of a split-QF system that drives strong expression in , is repressible by QS and inducible by a small non-toxic molecule quinic acid. The split-QF system is fully compatible with existing split-GAL4 and split-LexA lines, thus greatly expanding the range of possible advanced intersectional experiments and anatomical, physiological and behavioural assays in and in other organisms.

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    Keller LabLooger Lab
    03/08/19 | In vivo glucose imaging in multiple model organisms with an engineered single-wavelength sensor.
    Keller JP, Marvin JS, Lacin H, Lemon WC, Shea J, Kim S, Lee RT, Koyama M, Keller PJ, Looger LL
    bioRxiv. 2019 Mar 8:. doi: 10.1101/571422

    Glucose is arguably the most important molecule in metabolism, and its mismanagement underlies diseases of vast societal import, most notably diabetes. Although glucose-related metabolism has been the subject of intense study for over a century, tools to track glucose in living organisms with high spatio-temporal resolution are lacking. We describe the engineering of a family of genetically encoded glucose sensors with high signal-to-noise ratio, fast kinetics and affinities varying over four orders of magnitude (1 µM to 10 mM). The sensors allow rigorous mechanistic characterization of glucose transporters expressed in cultured cells with high spatial and temporal resolution. Imaging of neuron/glia co-cultures revealed ∼3-fold higher glucose changes in astrocytes versus neurons. In larval Drosophila central nervous system explants, imaging of intracellular neuronal glucose suggested a novel rostro-caudal transport pathway in the ventral nerve cord neuropil, with paradoxically slower uptake into the peripheral cell bodies and brain lobes. In living zebrafish, expected glucose-related physiological sequelae of insulin and epinephrine treatments were directly visualized in real time. Additionally, spontaneous muscle twitches induced glucose uptake in muscle, and sensory- and pharmacological perturbations gave rise to large but enigmatic changes in the brain. These sensors will enable myriad experiments, most notably rapid, high-resolution imaging of glucose influx, efflux, and metabolism in behaving animals.

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    03/08/19 | Neural evolution of context-dependent fly song.
    Ding Y, Lillvis JL, Cande J, Berman GJ, Arthur BJ, Long X, Xu M, Dickson BJ, Stern DL
    Current Biology : CB. 2019 Mar 08;29(7):1089-99. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.019

    It is unclear where in the nervous system evolutionary changes tend to occur. To localize the source of neural evolution that has generated divergent behaviors, we developed a new approach to label and functionally manipulate homologous neurons across Drosophila species. We examined homologous descending neurons that drive courtship song in two species that sing divergent song types and localized relevant evolutionary changes in circuit function downstream of the intrinsic physiology of these descending neurons. This evolutionary change causes different species to produce divergent motor patterns in similar social contexts. Artificial stimulation of these descending neurons drives multiple song types, suggesting that multifunctional properties of song circuits may facilitate rapid evolution of song types.

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    Svoboda Lab
    05/15/19 | Prediction of choice from competing mechanosensory and choice-memory cues during active tactile decision making.
    Campagner D, Evans MH, Chlebikova K, Colins-Rodriguez A, Loft MS, Fox S, Pettifer D, Humphries MD, Svoboda K, Petersen RS
    The Journal of Neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2019 May 15;39(20):3921-33. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2217-18.2019

    Perceptual decision making is an active process where animals move their sense organs to extract task-relevant information. To investigate how the brain translates sensory input into decisions during active sensation, we developed a mouse active touch task where the mechanosensory input can be precisely measured and that challenges animals to use multiple mechanosensory cues. Male mice were trained to localise a pole using a single whisker and to report their decision by selecting one of three choices. Using high-speed imaging and machine vision we estimated whisker-object mechanical forces at millisecond resolution. Mice solved the task by a sensory-motor strategy where both the strength and direction of whisker bending were informative cues to pole location. We found competing influences of immediate sensory input and choice memory on mouse choice. On correct trials, choice could be predicted from the direction and strength of whisker bending, but not from previous choice. In contrast, on error trials, choice could be predicted from previous choice but not from whisker bending. This study shows that animal choices during active tactile decision making can be predicted from mechanosenory and choice-memory signals; and provides a new task, well-suited for future study of the neural basis of active perceptual decisions.Due to the difficulty of measuring the sensory input to moving sense organs, active perceptual decision making remains poorly understood. The whisker system provides a way forward since it is now possible to measure the mechanical forces due to whisker-object contact during behaviour. Here we train mice in a novel behavioural task that challenges them to use rich mechanosensory cues, but can be performed using one whisker and enables task-relevant mechanical forces to be precisely estimated. This approach enables rigorous study of how sensory cues translate into action during active, perceptual decision making. Our findings provide new insight into active touch and how sensory/internal signals interact to determine behavioural choices.

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    03/07/19 | Cryo-EM fibril structures from systemic AA amyloidosis reveal the species complementarity of pathological amyloids.
    Liberta F, Loerch S, Rennegarbe M, Schierhorn A, Westermark P, Westermark GT, Hazenberg BP, Grigorieff N, Fändrich M, Schmidt M
    Nature Communications. 2019 Mar 07;10(1):1104. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-09033-z

    Systemic AA amyloidosis is a worldwide occurring protein misfolding disease of humans and animals. It arises from the formation of amyloid fibrils from the acute phase protein serum amyloid A. Here, we report the purification and electron cryo-microscopy analysis of amyloid fibrils from a mouse and a human patient with systemic AA amyloidosis. The obtained resolutions are 3.0 Å and 2.7 Å for the murine and human fibril, respectively. The two fibrils differ in fundamental properties, such as presence of right-hand or left-hand twisted cross-β sheets and overall fold of the fibril proteins. Yet, both proteins adopt highly similar β-arch conformations within the N-terminal ~21 residues. Our data demonstrate the importance of the fibril protein N-terminus for the stability of the analyzed amyloid fibril morphologies and suggest strategies of combating this disease by interfering with specific fibril polymorphs.

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    03/07/19 | Cytoskeletal actin patterns shape mast cell activation.
    Colin-York H, Li D, Korobchevskaya K, Chang VT, Betzig E, Eggeling C, Fritzsche M
    Communications Biology. 2019;2:93. doi: 10.1038/s42003-019-0322-9

    Activation of immune cells relies on a dynamic actin cytoskeleton. Despite detailed knowledge of molecular actin assembly, the exact processes governing actin organization during activation remain elusive. Using advanced microscopy, we here show that Rat Basophilic Leukemia (RBL) cells, a model mast cell line, employ an orchestrated series of reorganization events within the cortical actin network during activation. In response to IgE antigen-stimulation of FCε receptors (FCεR) at the RBL cell surface, we observed symmetry breaking of the F-actin network and subsequent rapid disassembly of the actin cortex. This was followed by a reassembly process that may be driven by the coordinated transformation of distinct nanoscale F-actin architectures, reminiscent of self-organizing actin patterns. Actin patterns co-localized with zones of Arp2/3 nucleation, while network reassembly was accompanied by myosin-II activity. Strikingly, cortical actin disassembly coincided with zones of granule secretion, suggesting that cytoskeletal actin patterns contribute to orchestrate RBL cell activation.

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    03/01/19 | Novel Complex Interactions between Mitochondrial and Nuclear DNA in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder.
    Schulmann A, Ryu E, Goncalves V, Rollins B, Christiansen M, Frye MA, Biernacka J, Vawter MP
    Mol Neuropsychiatry. 2019 Mar 0;5(1):13-27. doi: 10.1159/000495658

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). This review examines recent publications and novel associations between mitochondrial genes and SZ and BD. Associations of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial variants with SZ were found using gene- and pathway-based approaches. Two control region mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) SNPs, T16519C and T195C, both showed an association with SZ and BD. A review of 4 studies of A15218G located in the cytochrome B oxidase gene (CYTB, SZ = 11,311, control = 35,735) shows a moderate association with SZ ( = 2.15E-03). Another mtDNA allele A12308G was nominally associated with psychosis in BD type I subjects and SZ. The first published study testing the epistatic interaction between nuclear-encoded and mitochondria-encoded genes demonstrated evidence for potential interactions between mtDNA and the nuclear genome for BD. A similar analysis for the risk of SZ revealed significant joint effects (34 nuclear-mitochondria SNP pairs with joint effect ≤ 5E-07) and significant enrichment of projection neurons. The mitochondria-encoded gene CYTB was found in both the epistatic interactions for SZ and BD and the single SNP association of SZ. Future efforts considering population stratification and polygenic risk scores will test the role of mitochondrial variants in psychiatric disorders.

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