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2 Janelia Publications

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    07/11/22 | FourierNets enable the design of highly non-local optical encoders for computational imaging
    Deb D, Jiao Z, Sims R, Chen AB, Broxton M, Ahrens MB, Podgorski K, Turaga SC


    Differentiable simulations of optical systems can be combined with deep learning-based reconstruction networks to enable high performance computational imaging via end-to-end (E2E) optimization of both the optical encoder and the deep decoder. This has enabled imaging applications such as 3D localization microscopy, depth estimation, and lensless photography via the optimization of local optical encoders. More challenging computational imaging applications, such as 3D snapshot microscopy which compresses 3D volumes into single 2D images, require a highly non-local optical encoder. We show that existing deep network decoders have a locality bias which prevents the optimization of such highly non-local optical encoders. We address this with a decoder based on a shallow neural network architecture using global kernel Fourier convolutional neural networks (FourierNets). We show that FourierNets surpass existing deep network based decoders at reconstructing photographs captured by the highly non-local DiffuserCam optical encoder. Further, we show that FourierNets enable E2E optimization of highly non-local optical encoders for 3D snapshot microscopy. By combining FourierNets with a large-scale multi-GPU differentiable optical simulation, we are able to optimize non-local optical encoders 170

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    09/28/21 | Connectome-constrained Latent Variable Model of Whole-Brain Neural Activity
    Lu Mi , Richard Xu , Sridhama Prakhya , Albert Lin , Nir Shavit , Aravinthan Samuel , Srinivas C Turaga
    International Conference on Learning Representations. 09/2021:

    The availability of both anatomical connectivity and brain-wide neural activity measurements in C. elegans make the worm a promising system for learning detailed, mechanistic models of an entire nervous system in a data-driven way. However, one faces several challenges when constructing such a model. We often do not have direct experimental access to important modeling details such as single-neuron dynamics and the signs and strengths of the synaptic connectivity. Further, neural activity can only be measured in a subset of neurons, often indirectly via calcium imaging, and significant trial-to-trial variability has been observed. To address these challenges, we introduce a connectome-constrained latent variable model (CC-LVM) of the unobserved voltage dynamics of the entire C. elegans nervous system and the observed calcium signals. We used the framework of variational autoencoders to fit parameters of the mechanistic simulation constituting the generative model of the LVM to calcium imaging observations. A variational approximate posterior distribution over latent voltage traces for all neurons is efficiently inferred using an inference network, and constrained by a prior distribution given by the biophysical simulation of neural dynamics. We applied this model to an experimental whole-brain dataset, and found that connectomic constraints enable our LVM to predict the activity of neurons whose activity were withheld significantly better than models unconstrained by a connectome. We explored models with different degrees of biophysical detail, and found that models with realistic conductance-based synapses provide markedly better predictions than current-based synapses for this system.

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