Main Menu (Mobile)- Block

Main Menu - Block

custom | custom

Search Results

filters_region_cap | custom


facetapi-Q2b17qCsTdECvJIqZJgYMaGsr8vANl1n | block
facetapi-W9JlIB1X0bjs93n1Alu3wHJQTTgDCBGe | block
facetapi-61yz1V0li8B1bixrCWxdAe2aYiEXdhd0 | block
facetapi-PV5lg7xuz68EAY8eakJzrcmwtdGEnxR0 | block
general_search_page-panel_pane_1 | views_panes

92 Janelia Publications

Showing 11-20 of 92 results
Your Criteria:
    06/27/19 | High-resolution imaging reveals how the spindle midzone impacts chromosome movement.
    Pamula MC, Carlini L, Forth S, Verma P, Suresh S, Legant WR, Khodjakov A, Betzig E, Kapoor TM
    The Journal of Cell Biology. 27 Jun 2019;218(8):2529-44. doi: 10.1083/jcb.201904169

    In the spindle midzone, microtubules from opposite half-spindles form bundles between segregating chromosomes. Microtubule bundles can either push or restrict chromosome movement during anaphase in different cellular contexts, but how these activities are achieved remains poorly understood. Here, we use high-resolution live-cell imaging to analyze individual microtubule bundles, growing filaments, and chromosome movement in dividing human cells. Within bundles, filament overlap length marked by the cross-linking protein PRC1 decreases during anaphase as chromosome segregation slows. Filament ends within microtubule bundles appear capped despite dynamic PRC1 turnover and submicrometer proximity to growing microtubules. Chromosome segregation distance and rate are increased in two human cell lines when microtubule bundle assembly is prevented via PRC1 knockdown. Upon expressing a mutant PRC1 with reduced microtubule affinity, bundles assemble but chromosome hypersegregation is still observed. We propose that microtubule overlap length reduction, typically linked to pushing forces generated within filament bundles, is needed to properly restrict spindle elongation and position chromosomes within daughter cells.

    View Publication Page
    04/26/19 | Dynamic super-resolution structured illumination imaging in the living brain.
    Turcotte R, Liang Y, Tanimoto M, Zhang Q, Li Z, Koyama M, Betzig E, Ji N
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2019 Apr 26;116(19):9586-91. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1819965116

    Cells in the brain act as components of extended networks. Therefore, to understand neurobiological processes in a physiological context, it is essential to study them in vivo. Super-resolution microscopy has spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit, thus promising to provide structural and functional insights that are not accessible with conventional microscopy. However, to apply it to in vivo brain imaging, we must address the challenges of 3D imaging in an optically heterogeneous tissue that is constantly in motion. We optimized image acquisition and reconstruction to combat sample motion and applied adaptive optics to correcting sample-induced optical aberrations in super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SIM) in vivo. We imaged the brains of live zebrafish larvae and mice and observed the dynamics of dendrites and dendritic spines at nanoscale resolution.

    View Publication Page
    03/19/19 | Cytoskeletal control of antigen-dependent T cell activation.
    Colin-York H, Javanmardi Y, Skamrahl M, Kumari S, Chang VT, Khuon S, Taylor A, Chew T, Betzig E, Moeendarbary E, Cerundolo V, Eggeling C, Fritzsche M
    Cell Reports. 2019 Mar 19;26(12):3369-3379.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2019.02.074

    Cytoskeletal actin dynamics is essential for T cell activation. Here, we show evidence that the binding kinetics of the antigen engaging the T cell receptor influences the nanoscale actin organization and mechanics of the immune synapse. Using an engineered T cell system expressing a specific T cell receptor and stimulated by a range of antigens, we found that the peak force experienced by the T cell receptor during activation was independent of the unbinding kinetics of the stimulating antigen. Conversely, quantification of the actin retrograde flow velocity at the synapse revealed a striking dependence on the antigen unbinding kinetics. These findings suggest that the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton actively adjusted to normalize the force experienced by the T cell receptor in an antigen-specific manner. Consequently, tuning actin dynamics in response to antigen kinetics may thus be a mechanism that allows T cells to adjust the lengthscale and timescale of T cell receptor signaling.

    View Publication Page
    03/07/19 | Cytoskeletal actin patterns shape mast cell activation.
    Colin-York H, Li D, Korobchevskaya K, Chang VT, Betzig E, Eggeling C, Fritzsche M
    Communications Biology. 2019;2:93. doi: 10.1038/s42003-019-0322-9

    Activation of immune cells relies on a dynamic actin cytoskeleton. Despite detailed knowledge of molecular actin assembly, the exact processes governing actin organization during activation remain elusive. Using advanced microscopy, we here show that Rat Basophilic Leukemia (RBL) cells, a model mast cell line, employ an orchestrated series of reorganization events within the cortical actin network during activation. In response to IgE antigen-stimulation of FCε receptors (FCεR) at the RBL cell surface, we observed symmetry breaking of the F-actin network and subsequent rapid disassembly of the actin cortex. This was followed by a reassembly process that may be driven by the coordinated transformation of distinct nanoscale F-actin architectures, reminiscent of self-organizing actin patterns. Actin patterns co-localized with zones of Arp2/3 nucleation, while network reassembly was accompanied by myosin-II activity. Strikingly, cortical actin disassembly coincided with zones of granule secretion, suggesting that cytoskeletal actin patterns contribute to orchestrate RBL cell activation.

    View Publication Page
    01/18/19 | Cortical column and whole-brain imaging with molecular contrast and nanoscale resolution.
    Gao R, Asano SM, Upadhyayula S, Pisarev I, Milkie DE, Liu T, Singh V, Graves AR, Huynh GH, Zhao Y, Bogovic JA, Colonell J, Ott CM, Zugates CT, Tappan S, Rodriguez A, Mosaliganti KR, Sheu S, Pasolli HA, et al
    Science (New York, N.Y.). 2019 Jan 18;363(6424):eaau8302. doi: 10.1126/science.aau8302

    Optical and electron microscopy have made tremendous inroads toward understanding the complexity of the brain. However, optical microscopy offers insufficient resolution to reveal subcellular details, and electron microscopy lacks the throughput and molecular contrast to visualize specific molecular constituents over millimeter-scale or larger dimensions. We combined expansion microscopy and lattice light-sheet microscopy to image the nanoscale spatial relationships between proteins across the thickness of the mouse cortex or the entire Drosophila brain. These included synaptic proteins at dendritic spines, myelination along axons, and presynaptic densities at dopaminergic neurons in every fly brain region. The technology should enable statistically rich, large-scale studies of neural development, sexual dimorphism, degree of stereotypy, and structural correlations to behavior or neural activity, all with molecular contrast.

    View Publication Page
    11/15/18 | Visualizing intracellular organelle and cytoskeletal interactions at nanoscale resolution on millisecond timescales.
    Guo Y, Li D, Zhang S, Yang Y, Liu J, Wang X, Liu C, Milkie DE, Moore RP, Tulu US, Kiehart DP, Hu J, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Betzig E, Li D
    Cell. 2018 Nov 15;175(5):1430-42. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2018.09.057

    In eukaryotic cells, organelles and the cytoskeleton undergo highly dynamic yet organized interactions capable of orchestrating complex cellular functions. Visualizing these interactions requires noninvasive, long-duration imaging of the intracellular environment at high spatiotemporal resolution and low background. To achieve these normally opposing goals, we developed grazing incidence structured illumination microscopy (GI-SIM) that is capable of imaging dynamic events near the basal cell cortex at 97-nm resolution and 266 frames/s over thousands of time points. We employed multi-color GI-SIM to characterize the fast dynamic interactions of diverse organelles and the cytoskeleton, shedding new light on the complex behaviors of these structures. Precise measurements of microtubule growth or shrinkage events helped distinguish among models of microtubule dynamic instability. Analysis of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) interactions with other organelles or microtubules uncovered new ER remodeling mechanisms, such as hitchhiking of the ER on motile organelles. Finally, ER-mitochondria contact sites were found to promote both mitochondrial fission and fusion.

    View Publication Page
    09/06/18 | 4D cell biology: big data image analytics and lattice light-sheet imaging reveal dynamics of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in stem cell derived intestinal organoids.
    Schöneberg J, Dambournet D, Liu T, Forster R, Hockemeyer D, Betzig E, Drubin DG
    Molecular Biology of the Cell. 2018 Sep 06:mbcE18060375. doi: 10.1091/mbc.E18-06-0375

    New methods in stem cell 3D organoid tissue culture, advanced imaging and big data image analytics now allow tissue scale 4D cell biology, but currently available analytical pipelines are inadequate for handing and analyzing the resulting gigabytes and terabytes of high-content imaging data. We expressed fluorescent protein fusions of clathrin and dynamin2 at endogenous levels in genome-edited human embryonic stem cells, which were differentiated into hESC-derived intestinal epithelial organoids. Lattice Light-Sheet Imaging with adaptive optics (AO-LLSM) allowed us to image large volumes of these organoids (70µm x 60µm x 40µm xyz) at 5.7s/frame. We developed an open source data analysis package termed pyLattice to process the resulting large (∼60Gb) movie datasets and to track clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) events. CME tracks could be recorded from ∼35 cells at a time, resulting in ∼4000 processed tracks per movie. Based on their localization in the organoid, we classified CME tracks into apical, lateral and basal events and found that CME dynamics are similar for all three classes, despite reported differences in membrane tension. pyLattice coupled with AO-LLSM makes possible quantitative, high temporal and spatial resolution analysis of subcellular events within tissues. Movie S1 Movie S1 Thresholded 3D AO-LLSM data of an intestinal epithelial organoid showing clathrin (red) and dynamin2 (green) puncta in surface depiction. The movie zooms out from a single clathrin mediated endocytosis event that shows both clathrin and dynamin2 at the same location to eventually show the whole AO-LLSM field of view. Nuclear envelopes and the outer membranes of the tissue are depicted in transparent white. Movie S2 Movie S2 Thresholded 3D AO-LLSM data of an intestinal epithelial organoid showing clathrin (red) and dynamin2 (green) puncta in surface depiction. The movie rotates the AO-LLSM field of view. Nuclear envelopes and the outer membranes of the tissue are depicted in transparent white. Movie S3 Movie S3 Thresholded 3D AO-LLSM data of an intestinal epithelial organoid. The curved surface is of the spherical organoid is visible as the movie rotates. Clathrin puncta are visible throughout the tissue (white). Movie S4 Movie S4 The detection step in the data processing pipeline retrieves all clathrin puncta in the volume. Detected puncta are marked with a cube (blue). Movie S5 Movie S5 Zoom on one clathrin puncta in the thresholded 3D dataset. The punctum of interest is marked with a blue cube. Other puncta are also visible. Movie S6 Movie S6 Zoom on the same clathrin puncta as in M3 in non-thresholded 3D data. The surrounding fluorescence is visible as a transparent cloud.

    View Publication Page
    07/12/18 | A complete electron microscopy volume of the brain of adult Drosophila melanogaster.
    Zheng Z, Lauritzen JS, Perlman E, Robinson CG, Nichols M, Milkie DE, Torrens O, Price J, Fisher CB, Sharifi N, Calle-Schuler SA, Kmecova L, Ali IJ, Karsh B, Trautman ET, Bogovic JA, Hanslovsky P, Jefferis GS, Kazhdan M, Khairy K
    Cell. 2018 Jul 12;174(3):730-43. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2018.06.019

    Drosophila melanogaster has a rich repertoire of innate and learned behaviors. Its 100,000-neuron brain is a large but tractable target for comprehensive neural circuit mapping. Only electron microscopy (EM) enables complete, unbiased mapping of synaptic connectivity; however, the fly brain is too large for conventional EM. We developed a custom high-throughput EM platform and imaged the entire brain of an adult female fly at synaptic resolution. To validate the dataset, we traced brain-spanning circuitry involving the mushroom body (MB), which has been extensively studied for its role in learning. All inputs to Kenyon cells (KCs), the intrinsic neurons of the MB, were mapped, revealing a previously unknown cell type, postsynaptic partners of KC dendrites, and unexpected clustering of olfactory projection neurons. These reconstructions show that this freely available EM volume supports mapping of brain-spanning circuits, which will significantly accelerate Drosophila neuroscience..

    View Publication Page
    06/19/18 | Lamellar junctions in the endolymphatic sac act as a relief valve to regulate inner ear pressure.
    Ian A. Swinburne , Kishore R. Mosaliganti , Srigokul Upadhyayula , Tsung-Li Liu , David G. C. Hildebrand , Tony Y.-C. Tsai , Anzhi Chen , Ebaa Al-Obeidi , Anna K. Fass , Samir Malhotra , Florian Engert , Jeff W. Lichtman , Tom Kirchhausen , Sean G. Megason , Eric Betzig
    eLife. 2018 Jun 19:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.37131
    06/19/18 | Lamellar projections in the endolymphatic sac act as a relief valve to regulate inner ear pressure.
    Swinburne IA, Mosaliganti KR, Upadhyayula S, Liu T, Hildebrand DG, Tsai TY, Chen A, Al-Obeidi E, Fass AK, Malhotra S, Engert F, Lichtman JW, Kirchausen T, Betzig E, Megason SG
    eLife. 2018 Jun 19;7:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.37131

    The inner ear is a fluid-filled closed-epithelial structure whose function requires maintenance of an internal hydrostatic pressure and fluid composition. The endolymphatic sac (ES) is a dead-end epithelial tube connected to the inner ear whose function is unclear. ES defects can cause distended ear tissue, a pathology often seen in hearing and balance disorders. Using live imaging of zebrafish larvae, we reveal that the ES undergoes cycles of slow pressure-driven inflation followed by rapid deflation. Absence of these cycles in mutants leads to distended ear tissue. Using serial-section electron microscopy and adaptive optics lattice light-sheet microscopy, we find a pressure relief valve in the ES comprised of partially separated apical junctions and dynamic overlapping basal lamellae that separate under pressure to release fluid. We propose that this lmx1-dependent pressure relief valve is required to maintain fluid homeostasis in the inner ear and other fluid-filled cavities.

    View Publication Page