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4 Janelia Publications

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    Ji Lab
    11/02/16 | Opportunities for Technology and Tool Development.
    Neuron. 2016 Nov 2;92(3):564-566. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2016.10.042

    Major resources are now available to develop tools and technologies aimed at dissecting the circuitry and computations underlying behavior, unraveling the underpinnings of brain disorders, and understanding the neural substrates of cognition. Scientists from around the world shared their views around new tools and technologies to drive advances in neuroscience.

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    Ji LabFreeman Lab
    08/26/16 | Technologies for imaging neural activity in large volumes.
    Ji N, Freeman J, Smith SL
    Nature Neuroscience. 2016 Aug 26;19(9):1154-64. doi: 10.1038/nn.4358

    Neural circuitry has evolved to form distributed networks that act dynamically across large volumes. Conventional microscopy collects data from individual planes and cannot sample circuitry across large volumes at the temporal resolution relevant to neural circuit function and behaviors. Here we review emerging technologies for rapid volume imaging of neural circuitry. We focus on two critical challenges: the inertia of optical systems, which limits image speed, and aberrations, which restrict the image volume. Optical sampling time must be long enough to ensure high-fidelity measurements, but optimized sampling strategies and point-spread function engineering can facilitate rapid volume imaging of neural activity within this constraint. We also discuss new computational strategies for processing and analyzing volume imaging data of increasing size and complexity. Together, optical and computational advances are providing a broader view of neural circuit dynamics and helping elucidate how brain regions work in concert to support behavior.

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    06/10/16 | in vivo brain imaging with adaptive optical microscope.
    Wang K, Sun W, Ji N, Betzig E
    Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO): Applications and Technology. 2016 Jun :AM40.1. doi: 10.1364/CLEO_AT.2016.AM4O.1

    The diffraction limited resolution of two photon and confocal microscope can be recovered using adaptive optics to explore the detailed neuronal network in the brains of zebrafish and mouse in vivo.

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    Ji Lab
    02/01/16 | Thalamus provides layer 4 of primary visual cortex with orientation- and direction-tuned inputs.
    Sun W, Tan Z, Mensh BD, Ji N
    Nature Neuroscience. 2016 Feb;19(2):308-15. doi: 10.1038/nn.4196

    Understanding the functions of a brain region requires knowing the neural representations of its myriad inputs, local neurons and outputs. Primary visual cortex (V1) has long been thought to compute visual orientation from untuned thalamic inputs, but very few thalamic inputs have been measured in any mammal. We determined the response properties of ~28,000 thalamic boutons and ~4,000 cortical neurons in layers 1–5 of awake mouse V1. Using adaptive optics that allows accurate measurement of bouton activity deep in cortex, we found that around half of the boutons in the main thalamorecipient L4 carried orientation-tuned information and that their orientation and direction biases were also dominant in the L4 neuron population, suggesting that these neurons may inherit their selectivity from tuned thalamic inputs. Cortical neurons in all layers exhibited sharper tuning than thalamic boutons and a greater diversity of preferred orientations. Our results provide data-rich constraints for refining mechanistic models of cortical computation.

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