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6 Janelia Publications

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    Murphy Lab
    06/13/18 | Distinct cell types in the superficial superior colliculus project to the dorsal lateral geniculate and lateral posterior thalamic nuclei.
    Gale SD, Murphy GJ
    Journal of Neurophysiology. 2018 Jun 13;120(3):1286-92. doi: 10.1152/jn.00248.2018

    The superficial layers of the superior colliculus (sSC) receive retinal input and project to thalamic regions - the dorsal lateral geniculate (dLGN) and lateral posterior (LP; or pulvinar) nuclei -that convey visual information to cortex. A critical step towards understanding the functional impact of sSC neurons on these parallel thalamo-cortical pathways is determining whether different classes of sSC neurons, which are known to respond to different features of visual stimuli, innervate overlapping or distinct thalamic targets. Here, we identified a transgenic mouse line that labels sSC neurons that project to dLGN but not LP. We utilized selective expression of fluorophores and channelrhodopsin in this and previously characterized mouse lines to demonstrate that distinct cell types give rise to sSC projections to dLGN and LP. We further show that the glutamatergic sSC cell type that projects to dLGN also provides input to the sSC cell type that projects to LP. These results clarify the cellular origin of parallel sSC-thalamo-cortical pathways and reveal an interaction between these pathways via local connections within the sSC.

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    Murphy Lab
    08/31/16 | Active dendritic properties and local inhibitory input enable selectivity for object motion in mouse superior colliculus neurons.
    Gale SD, Murphy GJ
    The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2016 Aug 31;36(35):9111-23. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0645-16.2016

    UNLABELLED: Neurons respond to specific features of sensory stimuli. In the visual system, for example, some neurons respond to motion of small but not large objects, whereas other neurons prefer motion of the entire visual field. Separate neurons respond equally to local and global motion but selectively to additional features of visual stimuli. How and where does response selectivity emerge? Here, we show that wide-field (WF) cells in retino-recipient layers of the mouse superior colliculus (SC) respond selectively to small moving objects. Moreover, we identify two mechanisms that contribute to this selectivity. First, we show that input restricted to a small portion of the broad dendritic arbor of WF cells is sufficient to trigger dendritic spikes that reliably propagate to the soma/axon. In vivo whole-cell recordings reveal that nearly every action potential evoked by visual stimuli has characteristics of spikes initiated in dendrites. Second, inhibitory input from a different class of SC neuron, horizontal cells, constrains the range of stimuli to which WF cells respond. Horizontal cells respond preferentially to the sudden appearance or rapid movement of large stimuli. Optogenetic reduction of their activity reduces movement selectivity and broadens size tuning in WF cells by increasing the relative strength of responses to stimuli that appear suddenly or cover a large region of space. Therefore, strongly propagating dendritic spikes enable small stimuli to drive spike output in WF cells and local inhibition helps restrict responses to stimuli that are both small and moving.

    SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: How do neurons respond selectively to some sensory stimuli but not others? In the visual system, a particularly relevant stimulus feature is object motion, which often reveals other animals. Here, we show how specific cells in the superior colliculus, one synapse downstream of the retina, respond selectively to object motion. These wide-field (WF) cells respond strongly to small objects that move slowly anywhere through a large region of space, but not to stationary objects or full-field motion. Action potential initiation in dendrites enables small stimuli to trigger visual responses and inhibitory input from cells that prefer large, suddenly appearing, or quickly moving stimuli restricts responses of WF cells to objects that are small and moving.

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    Murphy Lab
    05/11/16 | Shared and distinct retinal input to the mouse superior colliculus and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.
    Ellis EM, Gauvain G, Sivyer B, Murphy GJ
    Journal of Neurophysiology. 2016 May 11;116(2):602-10. doi: 10.1152/jn.00227.2016

    The mammalian retina conveys the vast majority of information about visual stimuli to two brain regions: the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and the superior colliculus (SC). The degree to which retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) send similar or distinct information to the two areas remains unclear despite the important constraints that different patterns of RGC input place on downstream visual processing. To resolve this ambiguity we injected a glycoprotein-deficient rabies virus coding for the expression of a fluorescent protein into the dLGN or SC; rabies virus labeled a smaller fraction of RGCs than lipophilic dyes like DiI but, crucially, did not label RGC axons of passage. ~80% of the RGCs infected by rabies virus injected into the dLGN were co-labeled with DiI injected into the SC, suggesting that many dLGN-projecting RGCs also project to the SC. However, functional characterization of RGCs revealed that the SC receives input from several classes of RGCs that largely avoid the dLGN - in particular, RGCs in which (1) sustained changes in light intensity elicit transient changes in firing rate and/or (2) a small range of stimulus sizes or temporal fluctuations in light intensity elicit robust activity. Taken together, our results illustrate several unexpected asymmetries in the information that the mouse retina conveys to two major downstream targets and suggest that differences in the output of dLGN and SC neurons reflect, at least in part, differences in the functional properties of RGCs that innervate the SC but not the dLGN.

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    Murphy Lab
    04/22/15 | Projection-specific characteristics of retinal input to the brain.
    Gauvain G, Murphy GJ
    The Journal of Neuroscience. 2015 Apr 22;35(16):6575-83. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4298-14.2015

    The brain receives information about the direction of object motion from several types of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). On-Off direction-selective (DS) RGCs respond preferentially to stimuli moving quickly in one of four directions and provide a significant (but difficult to quantify) fraction of RGC input to the SC. On DS RGCs, in comparison, respond preferentially to stimuli moving slowly in one of three directions and are thought to only target retinorecipient nuclei comprising the accessory optic system, e.g., the medial terminal nucleus (MTN). To determine the fraction of SC-projecting RGCs that exhibit direction selectivity, and the specificity with which On-Off and On DS RGCs target retinorecipient areas, we performed optical and electrophysiological recordings from RGCs retrogradely labeled from the mouse SC and MTN. We found, surprisingly, that both On-Off and On DS RGCs innervate the SC; collectively they constitute nearly 40% of SC-projecting RGCs. In comparison, only On DS RGCs project to the MTN. Subsequent experiments revealed that individual On DS RGCs innervate either the SC or MTN and exhibit robust projection-specific differences in somatodendritic morphology, cellular excitability, and light-evoked activity; several projection-specific differences in the output of On DS RGCs correspond closely to differences in excitatory synaptic input the cells receive. Our results reveal a robust projection of On DS RGCs to the SC, projection-specific differences in the response properties of On DS RGCs, and biophysical and synaptic mechanisms that underlie these functional differences.

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    Murphy Lab
    10/01/14 | Distinct representation and distribution of visual information by specific cell types in mouse superficial superior colliculus.
    Gale SD, Murphy GJ
    The Journal of Neuroscience. 2014 Oct 1;34(40):13458-71. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2768-14.2014

    The superficial superior colliculus (sSC) occupies a critical node in the mammalian visual system; it is one of two major retinorecipient areas, receives visual cortical input, and innervates visual thalamocortical circuits. Nonetheless, the contribution of sSC neurons to downstream neural activity and visually guided behavior is unknown and frequently neglected. Here we identified the visual stimuli to which specific classes of sSC neurons respond, the downstream regions they target, and transgenic mice enabling class-specific manipulations. One class responds to small, slowly moving stimuli and projects exclusively to lateral posterior thalamus; another, comprising GABAergic neurons, responds to the sudden appearance or rapid movement of large stimuli and projects to multiple areas, including the lateral geniculate nucleus. A third class exhibits direction-selective responses and targets deeper SC layers. Together, our results show how specific sSC neurons represent and distribute diverse information and enable direct tests of their functional role.

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    Murphy Lab
    08/24/11 | Electrical synaptic input to ganglion cells underlies differences in the output and absolute sensitivity of parallel retinal circuits.
    Murphy GJ, Rieke F
    The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2011 Aug 24;31(34):12218-28. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3241-11.2011

    Parallel circuits throughout the CNS exhibit distinct sensitivities and responses to sensory stimuli. Ambiguities in the source and properties of signals elicited by physiological stimuli, however, frequently obscure the mechanisms underlying these distinctions. We found that differences in the degree to which activity in two classes of Off retinal ganglion cell (RGC) encode information about light stimuli near detection threshold were not due to obvious differences in the cells’ intrinsic properties or the chemical synaptic input the cells received; indeed, differences in the cells’ light responses were largely insensitive to block of fast ionotropic glutamate receptors. Instead, the distinct responses of the two types of RGCs likely reflect differences in light-evoked electrical synaptic input. These results highlight a surprising strategy by which the retina differentially processes and routes visual information and provide new insight into the circuits that underlie responses to stimuli near detection threshold.

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