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84 Janelia Publications

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    04/06/24 | COPII with ALG2 and ESCRTs control lysosome-dependent microautophagy of ER exit sites.
    Liao Y, Pang S, Li W, Shtengel G, Choi H, Schaefer K, Xu CS, Lippincott-Schwartz J
    Dev Cell. 2024 Apr 06:. doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2024.03.027

    Endoplasmic reticulum exit sites (ERESs) are tubular outgrowths of endoplasmic reticulum that serve as the earliest station for protein sorting and export into the secretory pathway. How these structures respond to different cellular conditions remains unclear. Here, we report that ERESs undergo lysosome-dependent microautophagy when Ca is released by lysosomes in response to nutrient stressors such as mTOR inhibition or amino acid starvation in mammalian cells. Targeting and uptake of ERESs into lysosomes were observed by super-resolution live-cell imaging and focus ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). The mechanism was ESCRT dependent and required ubiquitinated SEC31, ALG2, and ALIX, with a knockout of ALG2 or function-blocking mutations of ALIX preventing engulfment of ERESs by lysosomes. In vitro, reconstitution of the pathway was possible using lysosomal lipid-mimicking giant unilamellar vesicles and purified recombinant components. Together, these findings demonstrate a pathway of lysosome-dependent ERES microautophagy mediated by COPII, ALG2, and ESCRTS induced by nutrient stress.

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    02/22/24 | CSPP1 stabilizes microtubules by capping both plus and minus ends.
    Wang Z, Wang W, Liu S, Yang F, Liu X, Hua S, Zhu L, Xu A, Hill DL, Wang D, Jiang K, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Liu X, Yao X
    Journal of Molecular Cell Biology. 2024 Feb 22:. doi: 10.1093/jmcb/mjae007

    Although the dynamic instability of microtubules (MTs) is fundamental to many cellular functions, quiescent MTs with unattached free distal ends are commonly present and play important roles in various events to power cellular dynamics. However, how these free MT tips are stabilized remains poorly understood. Here, we report that centrosome and spindle pole protein 1 (CSPP1) caps and stabilizes both plus and minus ends of static MTs. Real-time imaging of laser-ablated MTs in live cells showed deposition of CSPP1 at the newly generated MT ends, whose dynamic instability was concomitantly suppressed. Consistently, MT ends in CSPP1-overexpressing cells were hyper-stabilized, while those in CSPP1-depleted cells were much more dynamic. This CSPP1-elicited stabilization of MTs was demonstrated to be achieved by suppressing intrinsic MT catastrophe and restricting the polymerization. Importantly, CSPP1-bound MTs were resistant to MCAK-mediated depolymerization. These findings delineate a previously uncharacterized CSPP1 activity that integrates MT end capping to orchestrate quiescent MTs.

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    02/21/24 | Fluorescence complementation-based FRET imaging reveals centromere assembly dynamics.
    Dou Z, Liu R, Gui P, Fu C, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Yao X, Liu X
    Molecular Biology of the Cell. 2024 Feb 21:mbcE23090379. doi: 10.1091/mbc.E23-09-0379

    Visualization of specific molecules and their assembly in real time and space is essential to delineate how cellular dynamics and signaling circuit are orchestrated during cell division cycle. Our recent studies reveal structural insights into human centromere-kinetochore core CCAN complex. Here we introduce a method for optically imaging trimeric and tetrameric protein interactions at nanometer spatial resolution in live cells using fluorescence complementation-based Förster resonance energy transfer (FC-FRET). Complementary fluorescent protein molecules were first used to visualize dimerization followed by FRET measurements. Using FC- FRET, we visualized centromere CENP-SXTW tetramer assembly dynamics in live cells, and dimeric interactions between CENP-TW dimer and kinetochore protein Spc24/25 dimer in dividing cells. We further delineated the interactions of monomeric CENP-T with Spc24/25 dimer in dividing cells. Surprisingly, our analyses revealed critical role of CDK1 kinase activity in the initial recruitment of Spc24/25 by CENP-T. However, interactions between CENP-T and Spc24/25 during chromosome segregation is independent of CDK1. Thus, FC-FRET provides a unique approach to delineate spatiotemporal dynamics of trimerized and tetramerized proteins at nanometer scale and establishes a platform to report the precise regulation of multimeric protein interactions in space and time in live cells.

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    05/04/24 | Host ZCCHC3 blocks HIV-1 infection and production by a dual mechanism
    Binbin Yi , Yuri L Tanaka , Hidetaka Kosako , Erika P Butlertanaka , Prabuddha Sengupta , Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz , Akatsuki Saito , Shige H. Yoshimura
    iScience. 05/2024:. doi: 10.1101/2023.06.14.544911

    Most mammalian cells prevent viral infection and proliferation by expressing various restriction factors and sensors that activate the immune system. While anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) host restriction factors have been identified, most of them are antagonized by viral proteins. This has severely hindered their development in anti-HIV-1 therapy. Here, we describe CCHC-type zinc-finger-containing protein 3 (ZCCHC3) as a novel anti-HIV-1 factor that is not antagonized by viral proteins. ZCCHC3 suppresses production of HIV-1 and other retroviruses. We show that ZCCHC3 acts by binding to Gag nucleocapsid protein via zinc-finger motifs. This prevents interaction between the Gag nucleocapsid protein and viral genome and results in production of genome-deficient virions. ZCCHC3 also binds to the long terminal repeat on the viral genome via the middle-folded domain, sequestering the viral genome to P-bodies, which leads to decreased viral replication and production. Such a dual antiviral mechanism is distinct from that of any other known host restriction factors. Therefore, ZCCHC3 is a novel potential target in anti-HIV-1 therapy.

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    01/24/24 | Motion of VAPB molecules reveals ER-mitochondria contact site subdomains.
    Obara CJ, Nixon-Abell J, Moore AS, Riccio F, Hoffman DP, Shtengel G, Xu CS, Schaefer K, Pasolli HA, Masson J, Hess HF, Calderon CP, Blackstone C, Lippincott-Schwartz J
    Nature. 2024 Jan 24;626(7997):169-176. doi: 10.1038/s41586-023-06956-y

    To coordinate cellular physiology, eukaryotic cells rely on the rapid exchange of molecules at specialized organelle-organelle contact sites. Endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial contact sites (ERMCSs) are particularly vital communication hubs, playing key roles in the exchange of signalling molecules, lipids and metabolites. ERMCSs are maintained by interactions between complementary tethering molecules on the surface of each organelle. However, due to the extreme sensitivity of these membrane interfaces to experimental perturbation, a clear understanding of their nanoscale organization and regulation is still lacking. Here we combine three-dimensional electron microscopy with high-speed molecular tracking of a model organelle tether, Vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)-associated protein B (VAPB), to map the structure and diffusion landscape of ERMCSs. We uncovered dynamic subdomains within VAPB contact sites that correlate with ER membrane curvature and undergo rapid remodelling. We show that VAPB molecules enter and leave ERMCSs within seconds, despite the contact site itself remaining stable over much longer time scales. This metastability allows ERMCSs to remodel with changes in the physiological environment to accommodate metabolic needs of the cell. An amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-associated mutation in VAPB perturbs these subdomains, likely impairing their remodelling capacity and resulting in impaired interorganelle communication. These results establish high-speed single-molecule imaging as a new tool for mapping the structure of contact site interfaces and reveal that the diffusion landscape of VAPB at contact sites is a crucial component of ERMCS homeostasis.

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    12/08/23 | Permanent deconstruction of intracellular primary cilia in differentiating granule cell neurons.
    Ott CM, Constable S, Nguyen TM, White K, Lee WA, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Mukhopadhyay S
    bioRxiv. 2023 Dec 08:. doi: 10.1101/2023.12.07.565988

    Primary cilia on granule cell neuron progenitors in the developing cerebellum detect sonic hedgehog to facilitate proliferation. Following differentiation, cerebellar granule cells become the most abundant neuronal cell type in the brain. While essential during early developmental stages, the fate of granule cell cilia is unknown. Here, we provide nanoscopic resolution of ciliary dynamics by studying developmental changes in granule cell cilia using large-scale electron microscopy volumes and immunostaining of mouse cerebella. We found that many granule cell primary cilia were intracellular and concealed from the external environment. Cilia were disassembed in differentiating granule cell neurons in a process we call cilia deconstruction that was distinct from pre-mitotic cilia resorption in proliferating progenitors. In differentiating granule cells, ciliary loss involved unique disassembly intermediates, and, as maturation progressed, mother centriolar docking at the plasma membrane. Cilia did not reform from the docked centrioles, rather, in adult mice granule cell neurons remained unciliated. Many neurons in other brain regions require cilia to regulate function and connectivity. In contrast, our results show that granule cell progenitors had concealed cilia that underwent deconstruction potentially to prevent mitogenic hedgehog responsiveness. The ciliary deconstruction mechanism we describe could be paradigmatic of cilia removal during differentiation in other tissues.

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    11/01/23 | Nanometer-scale views of visual cortex reveal anatomical features of primary cilia poised to detect synaptic spillover
    Carolyn M Ott , Russel Torres , Tung-Sheng Kuan , Aaron T Kuan , JoAnn Buchanan , Leila Elabbady , Sharmishtaa Seshamani , Agnes L Bodor , Forrest C Collman , Davi D Bock , Wei-Chung Allen Lee , Nuno Macarico da Costa , Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz
    bioRxiv. 2023 Nov 01:. doi: 10.1101/2023.10.31.564838

    A primary cilium is a thin membrane-bound extension off a cell surface that contains receptors for perceiving and transmitting signals that modulate cell state and activity. While many cell types have a primary cilium, little is known about primary cilia in the brain, where they are less accessible than cilia on cultured cells or epithelial tissues and protrude from cell bodies into a deep, dense network of glial and neuronal processes. Here, we investigated cilia frequency, internal structure, shape, and position in large, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy volumes of mouse primary visual cortex. Cilia extended from the cell bodies of nearly all excitatory and inhibitory neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), but were absent from oligodendrocytes and microglia. Structural comparisons revealed that the membrane structure at the base of the cilium and the microtubule organization differed between neurons and glia. OPC cilia were distinct in that they were the shortest and contained pervasive internal vesicles only occasionally observed in neuron and astrocyte cilia. Investigating cilia-proximal features revealed that many cilia were directly adjacent to synapses, suggesting cilia are well poised to encounter locally released signaling molecules. The internal anatomy, including microtubule changes and centriole location, defined key structural features including cilium placement and shape. Together, the anatomical insights both within and around neuron and glia cilia provide new insights into cilia formation and function across cell types in the brain.

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    08/03/23 | Lysosomal release of amino acids at ER three-way junctions regulates transmembrane and secretory protein mRNA translation.
    Choi H, Liao Y, Yoon YJ, Grimm J, Lavis LD, Singer RH, Lippincott-Schwartz J
    bioRxiv. 2023 Aug 03:. doi: 10.1101/2023.08.01.551382

    One-third of the mammalian proteome is comprised of transmembrane and secretory proteins that are synthesized on endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we investigate the spatial distribution and regulation of mRNAs encoding these membrane and secretory proteins (termed "secretome" mRNAs) through live cell, single molecule tracking to directly monitor the position and translation states of secretome mRNAs on ER and their relationship to other organelles. Notably, translation of secretome mRNAs occurred preferentially near lysosomes on ER marked by the ER junction-associated protein, Lunapark. Knockdown of Lunapark reduced the extent of secretome mRNA translation without affecting translation of other mRNAs. Less secretome mRNA translation also occurred when lysosome function was perturbed by raising lysosomal pH or inhibiting lysosomal proteases. Secretome mRNA translation near lysosomes was enhanced during amino acid deprivation. Addition of the integrated stress response inhibitor, ISRIB, reversed the translation inhibition seen in Lunapark knockdown cells, implying an eIF2 dependency. Altogether, these findings uncover a novel coordination between ER and lysosomes, in which local release of amino acids and other factors from ER-associated lysosomes patterns and regulates translation of mRNAs encoding secretory and membrane proteins.

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    07/22/23 | Towards Generalizable Organelle Segmentation in Volume Electron Microscopy.
    Heinrich L, Patton W, Bennett D, Ackerman D, Park G, Bogovic JA, Eckstein N, Petruncio A, Clements J, Pang S, Shan Xu C, Funke J, Korff W, Hess H, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Saalfeld S, Weigel A, CellMap Project Team
    Microscopy and Microanalysis. 2023 Jul 22;29(Supplement_1):975. doi: 10.1093/micmic/ozad067.487
    06/01/23 | Structural Diversity within the Endoplasmic Reticulum-From the Microscale to the Nanoscale.
    Obara CJ, Moore AS, Lippincott-Schwartz J
    Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. 2023 Jun 01;15(6):. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a041259

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a continuous, highly dynamic membrane compartment that is crucial for numerous basic cellular functions. The ER stretches from the nuclear envelope to the outer periphery of all living eukaryotic cells. This ubiquitous organelle shows remarkable structural complexity, adopting a range of shapes, curvatures, and length scales. Canonically, the ER is thought to be composed of two simple membrane elements: sheets and tubules. However, recent advances in superresolution light microscopy and three-dimensional electron microscopy have revealed an astounding diversity of nanoscale ER structures, greatly expanding our view of ER organization. In this review, we describe these diverse ER structures, focusing on what is known of their regulation and associated functions in mammalian cells.

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