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1866 Janelia Publications

Showing 1-10 of 1866 results
12/23/20 | Directed Evolution of a Selective and Sensitive Serotonin Sensor via Machine Learning.
Unger EK, Keller JP, Altermatt M, Liang R, Matsui A, Dong C, Hon OJ, Yao Z, Sun J, Banala S, Flanigan ME, Jaffe DA, Hartanto S, Carlen J, Mizuno GO, Borden PM, Shivange AV, Cameron LP, Sinning S, Underhill SM, Olson DE, Amara SG, Temple Lang D, Rudnick G, Marvin JS, Lavis LD, Lester HA, Alvarez VA, Fisher AJ, Prescher JA, Kash TL, Yarov-Yarovoy V, Gradinaru V, Looger LL, Tian L
Cell. 2020 Dec 23;183(7):1986-2002.e26. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.11.040

Serotonin plays a central role in cognition and is the target of most pharmaceuticals for psychiatric disorders. Existing drugs have limited efficacy; creation of improved versions will require better understanding of serotonergic circuitry, which has been hampered by our inability to monitor serotonin release and transport with high spatial and temporal resolution. We developed and applied a binding-pocket redesign strategy, guided by machine learning, to create a high-performance, soluble, fluorescent serotonin sensor (iSeroSnFR), enabling optical detection of millisecond-scale serotonin transients. We demonstrate that iSeroSnFR can be used to detect serotonin release in freely behaving mice during fear conditioning, social interaction, and sleep/wake transitions. We also developed a robust assay of serotonin transporter function and modulation by drugs. We expect that both machine-learning-guided binding-pocket redesign and iSeroSnFR will have broad utility for the development of other sensors and in vitro and in vivo serotonin detection, respectively.

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12/14/20 | Cis-regulatory variation in the shavenbaby gene underlies intraspecific phenotypic variation, mirroring interspecific divergence in the same trait.
Soverna AF, Rodriguez NC, Korgaonkar A, Hasson E, Stern DL, Frankel N
Evolution. 2020 Dec 14:. doi: 10.1111/evo.14142

Despite considerable progress in recent decades in dissecting the genetic causes of natural morphological variation, there is limited understanding of how variation within species ultimately contributes to species differences. We have studied patterning of the non-sensory hairs, commonly known as "trichomes," on the dorsal cuticle of first-instar larvae of Drosophila. Most Drosophila species produce a dense lawn of dorsal trichomes, but a subset of these trichomes were lost in D. sechellia and D. ezoana due entirely to regulatory evolution of the shavenbaby (svb) gene. Here, we describe intraspecific variation in dorsal trichome patterns of first-instar larvae of D. virilis that is similar to the trichome pattern variation identified previously between species. We found that a single large effect QTL, which includes svb, explains most of the trichome number difference between two D. virilis strains and that svb expression correlates with the trichome difference between strains. This QTL does not explain the entire difference between strains, implying that additional loci contribute to variation in trichome numbers. Thus, the genetic architecture of intraspecific variation exhibits similarities and differences with interspecific variation that may reflect differences in long-term and short-term evolutionary processes.

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12/14/20 | The connectome of the adult mushroom body provides insights into function.
Li F, Lindsey JW, Marin EC, Otto N, Dreher M, Dempsey G, Stark I, Bates AS, Pleijzier MW, Schlegel P, Nern A, Takemura S, Eckstein N, Yang T, Francis A, Braun A, Parekh R, Costa M, Scheffer LK, Aso Y, Jefferis GS, Abbott LF, Litwin-Kumar A, Waddell S, Rubin GM
eLife. 2020 Dec 14;9:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.62576

Making inferences about the computations performed by neuronal circuits from synapse-level connectivity maps is an emerging opportunity in neuroscience. The mushroom body (MB) is well positioned for developing and testing such an approach due to its conserved neuronal architecture, recently completed dense connectome, and extensive prior experimental studies of its roles in learning, memory and activity regulation. Here we identify new components of the MB circuit in , including extensive visual input and MB output neurons (MBONs) with direct connections to descending neurons. We find unexpected structure in sensory inputs, in the transfer of information about different sensory modalities to MBONs, and in the modulation of that transfer by dopaminergic neurons (DANs). We provide insights into the circuitry used to integrate MB outputs, connectivity between the MB and the central complex and inputs to DANs, including feedback from MBONs. Our results provide a foundation for further theoretical and experimental work.

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12/01/20 | The structural basis of Rubisco phase separation in the pyrenoid.
He S, Chou H, Matthies D, Wunder T, Meyer MT, Atkinson N, Martinez-Sanchez A, Jeffrey PD, Port SA, Patena W, He G, Chen VK, Hughson FM, McCormick AJ, Mueller-Cajar O, Engel BD, Yu Z, Jonikas MC
Nature Plants. 2020 Dec 01;6(12):1480-1490. doi: 10.1038/s41477-020-00811-y

Approximately one-third of global CO fixation occurs in a phase-separated algal organelle called the pyrenoid. The existing data suggest that the pyrenoid forms by the phase separation of the CO-fixing enzyme Rubisco with a linker protein; however, the molecular interactions underlying this phase separation remain unknown. Here we present the structural basis of the interactions between Rubisco and its intrinsically disordered linker protein Essential Pyrenoid Component 1 (EPYC1) in the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We find that EPYC1 consists of five evenly spaced Rubisco-binding regions that share sequence similarity. Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy of these regions in complex with Rubisco indicates that each Rubisco holoenzyme has eight binding sites for EPYC1, one on each Rubisco small subunit. Interface mutations disrupt binding, phase separation and pyrenoid formation. Cryo-electron tomography supports a model in which EPYC1 and Rubisco form a codependent multivalent network of specific low-affinity bonds, giving the matrix liquid-like properties. Our results advance the structural and functional understanding of the phase separation underlying the pyrenoid, an organelle that plays a fundamental role in the global carbon cycle.

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02/01/21 | 3D FIB-SEM reconstruction of microtubule-organelle interaction in whole primary mouse β cells.
Müller A, Schmidt D, Xu CS, Pang S, D'Costa JV, Kretschmar S, Münster C, Kurth T, Jug F, Weigert M, Hess HF, Solimena M
Journal of Cell Biology. 2021 Feb 01;220(2):. doi: 10.1083/jcb.202010039

Microtubules play a major role in intracellular trafficking of vesicles in endocrine cells. Detailed knowledge of microtubule organization and their relation to other cell constituents is crucial for understanding cell function. However, their role in insulin transport and secretion is under debate. Here, we use FIB-SEM to image islet β cells in their entirety with unprecedented resolution. We reconstruct mitochondria, Golgi apparati, centrioles, insulin secretory granules, and microtubules of seven β cells, and generate a comprehensive spatial map of microtubule-organelle interactions. We find that microtubules form nonradial networks that are predominantly not connected to either centrioles or endomembranes. Microtubule number and length, but not microtubule polymer density, vary with glucose stimulation. Furthermore, insulin secretory granules are enriched near the plasma membrane, where they associate with microtubules. In summary, we provide the first 3D reconstructions of complete microtubule networks in primary mammalian cells together with evidence regarding their importance for insulin secretory granule positioning and thus their supportive role in insulin secretion.

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01/07/21 | Cellpose: a generalist algorithm for cellular segmentation.
Stringer C, Wang T, Michaelos M, Pachitariu M
Nature Methods. 2021 Jan 07;18(1):100-106. doi: 10.1038/s41592-020-01018-x

Many biological applications require the segmentation of cell bodies, membranes and nuclei from microscopy images. Deep learning has enabled great progress on this problem, but current methods are specialized for images that have large training datasets. Here we introduce a generalist, deep learning-based segmentation method called Cellpose, which can precisely segment cells from a wide range of image types and does not require model retraining or parameter adjustments. Cellpose was trained on a new dataset of highly varied images of cells, containing over 70,000 segmented objects. We also demonstrate a three-dimensional (3D) extension of Cellpose that reuses the two-dimensional (2D) model and does not require 3D-labeled data. To support community contributions to the training data, we developed software for manual labeling and for curation of the automated results. Periodically retraining the model on the community-contributed data will ensure that Cellpose improves constantly.

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01/07/21 | Characterization of a common progenitor pool of the epicardium and myocardium.
Tyser RC, Ibarra-Soria X, McDole K, A Jayaram S, Godwin J, van den Brand TA, Miranda AM, Scialdone A, Keller PJ, Marioni JC, Srinivas S
Science. 2021 Jan 07:. doi: 10.1126/science.abb2986

The mammalian heart is derived from multiple cell lineages; however, our understanding of when and how the diverse cardiac cell types arise is limited. We mapped the origin of the embryonic mouse heart at single-cell resolution using a combination of transcriptomic, imaging, and genetic lineage labeling approaches. This provided a transcriptional and anatomic definition of cardiac progenitor types. Furthermore, it revealed a cardiac progenitor pool that is anatomically and transcriptionally distinct from currently known cardiac progenitors. Besides contributing to cardiomyocytes, these cells also represent the earliest progenitor of the epicardium, a source of trophic factors and cells during cardiac development and injury. This study provides detailed insights into the formation of early cardiac cell types, with particular relevance to the development of cell-based cardiac regenerative therapies.

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Cardona LabZlatic Lab
01/06/21 | Comparative Connectomics Reveals How Partner Identity, Location, and Activity Specify Synaptic Connectivity in Drosophila.
Valdes-Aleman J, Fetter RD, Sales EC, Heckman EL, Venkatasubramanian L, Doe CQ, Landgraf M, Cardona A, Zlatic M
Neuron. 2021 Jan 06;109(1):105-22. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2020.10.004

The mechanisms by which synaptic partners recognize each other and establish appropriate numbers of connections during embryonic development to form functional neural circuits are poorly understood. We combined electron microscopy reconstruction, functional imaging of neural activity, and behavioral experiments to elucidate the roles of (1) partner identity, (2) location, and (3) activity in circuit assembly in the embryonic nerve cord of Drosophila. We found that postsynaptic partners are able to find and connect to their presynaptic partners even when these have been shifted to ectopic locations or silenced. However, orderly positioning of axon terminals by positional cues and synaptic activity is required for appropriate numbers of connections between specific partners, for appropriate balance between excitatory and inhibitory connections, and for appropriate functional connectivity and behavior. Our study reveals with unprecedented resolution the fine connectivity effects of multiple factors that work together to control the assembly of neural circuits.

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01/04/21 | Neuromolecular and behavioral effects of ethanol deprivation in Drosophila
Natalie M. D’Silva , Katie S. McCullar , Ashley M. Conard , Tyler Blackwater , Reza Azanchi , Ulrike Heberlein , Erica Larschan , Karla R. Kaun
bioRxiv. 2021 Jan 04:. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.01.02.425101

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is characterized by loss of control in limiting alcohol intake. This may involve intermittent periods of abstinence followed by alcohol seeking and, consequently, relapse. However, little is understood of the molecular mechanisms underlying the impact of alcohol deprivation on behavior. Using a new Drosophila melanogaster repeated intermittent alcohol exposure model, we sought to identify how ethanol deprivation alters spontaneous behavior, determine the associated neural structures, and reveal correlated changes in brain gene expression. We found that repeated intermittent ethanol-odor exposures followed by ethanol-deprivation dynamically induces behaviors associated with a negative affect state. Although behavioral states broadly mapped to many brain regions, persistent changes in social behaviors mapped to the mushroom body and surrounding neuropil. This occurred concurrently with changes in expression of genes associated with sensory responses, neural plasticity, and immunity. Like social behaviors, immune response genes were upregulated following three-day repeated intermittent ethanol-odor exposures and persisted with one or two days of ethanol-deprivation, suggesting an enduring change in molecular function. Our study provides a framework for identifying how ethanol deprivation alters behavior with correlated underlying circuit and molecular changes.

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01/04/20 | Reconstruction of motor control circuits in adult Drosophila using automated transmission electron microscopy
Maniates-Selvin JT, Hildebrand DG, Graham BJ, Kuan AT, Thomas LA, Nguyen T, Buhmann J, Azevedo AW, Shanny BL, Funke J, Tuthill JC, Lee WA
Cell. 2021 Jan 04:. doi: 10.1101/2020.01.10.902478

Many animals use coordinated limb movements to interact with and navigate through the environment. To investigate circuit mechanisms underlying locomotor behavior, we used serial-section electron microscopy (EM) to map synaptic connectivity within a neuronal network that controls limb movements. We present a synapse-resolution EM dataset containing the ventral nerve cord (VNC) of an adult female Drosophila melanogaster. To generate this dataset, we developed GridTape, a technology that combines automated serial-section collection with automated high-throughput transmission EM. Using this dataset, we reconstructed 507 motor neurons, including all those that control the legs and wings. We show that a specific class of leg sensory neurons directly synapse onto the largest-caliber motor neuron axons on both sides of the body, representing a unique feedback pathway for fast limb control. We provide open access to the dataset and reconstructions registered to a standard atlas to permit matching of cells between EM and light microscopy data. We also provide GridTape instrumentation designs and software to make large-scale EM data acquisition more accessible and affordable to the scientific community.

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