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1960 Janelia Publications

Showing 1-10 of 1960 results
12/23/20 | Directed Evolution of a Selective and Sensitive Serotonin Sensor via Machine Learning.
Unger EK, Keller JP, Altermatt M, Liang R, Matsui A, Dong C, Hon OJ, Yao Z, Sun J, Banala S, Flanigan ME, Jaffe DA, Hartanto S, Carlen J, Mizuno GO, Borden PM, Shivange AV, Cameron LP, Sinning S, Underhill SM, Olson DE, Amara SG, Temple Lang D, Rudnick G, Marvin JS, Lavis LD, Lester HA, Alvarez VA, Fisher AJ, Prescher JA, Kash TL, Yarov-Yarovoy V, Gradinaru V, Looger LL, Tian L
Cell. 2020 Dec 23;183(7):1986-2002.e26. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.11.040

Serotonin plays a central role in cognition and is the target of most pharmaceuticals for psychiatric disorders. Existing drugs have limited efficacy; creation of improved versions will require better understanding of serotonergic circuitry, which has been hampered by our inability to monitor serotonin release and transport with high spatial and temporal resolution. We developed and applied a binding-pocket redesign strategy, guided by machine learning, to create a high-performance, soluble, fluorescent serotonin sensor (iSeroSnFR), enabling optical detection of millisecond-scale serotonin transients. We demonstrate that iSeroSnFR can be used to detect serotonin release in freely behaving mice during fear conditioning, social interaction, and sleep/wake transitions. We also developed a robust assay of serotonin transporter function and modulation by drugs. We expect that both machine-learning-guided binding-pocket redesign and iSeroSnFR will have broad utility for the development of other sensors and in vitro and in vivo serotonin detection, respectively.

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12/14/20 | Cis-regulatory variation in the shavenbaby gene underlies intraspecific phenotypic variation, mirroring interspecific divergence in the same trait.
Soverna AF, Rodriguez NC, Korgaonkar A, Hasson E, Stern DL, Frankel N
Evolution. 2020 Dec 14:. doi: 10.1111/evo.14142

Despite considerable progress in recent decades in dissecting the genetic causes of natural morphological variation, there is limited understanding of how variation within species ultimately contributes to species differences. We have studied patterning of the non-sensory hairs, commonly known as "trichomes," on the dorsal cuticle of first-instar larvae of Drosophila. Most Drosophila species produce a dense lawn of dorsal trichomes, but a subset of these trichomes were lost in D. sechellia and D. ezoana due entirely to regulatory evolution of the shavenbaby (svb) gene. Here, we describe intraspecific variation in dorsal trichome patterns of first-instar larvae of D. virilis that is similar to the trichome pattern variation identified previously between species. We found that a single large effect QTL, which includes svb, explains most of the trichome number difference between two D. virilis strains and that svb expression correlates with the trichome difference between strains. This QTL does not explain the entire difference between strains, implying that additional loci contribute to variation in trichome numbers. Thus, the genetic architecture of intraspecific variation exhibits similarities and differences with interspecific variation that may reflect differences in long-term and short-term evolutionary processes.

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12/14/20 | The connectome of the adult mushroom body provides insights into function.
Li F, Lindsey JW, Marin EC, Otto N, Dreher M, Dempsey G, Stark I, Bates AS, Pleijzier MW, Schlegel P, Nern A, Takemura S, Eckstein N, Yang T, Francis A, Braun A, Parekh R, Costa M, Scheffer LK, Aso Y, Jefferis GS, Abbott LF, Litwin-Kumar A, Waddell S, Rubin GM
eLife. 2020 Dec 14;9:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.62576

Making inferences about the computations performed by neuronal circuits from synapse-level connectivity maps is an emerging opportunity in neuroscience. The mushroom body (MB) is well positioned for developing and testing such an approach due to its conserved neuronal architecture, recently completed dense connectome, and extensive prior experimental studies of its roles in learning, memory and activity regulation. Here we identify new components of the MB circuit in , including extensive visual input and MB output neurons (MBONs) with direct connections to descending neurons. We find unexpected structure in sensory inputs, in the transfer of information about different sensory modalities to MBONs, and in the modulation of that transfer by dopaminergic neurons (DANs). We provide insights into the circuitry used to integrate MB outputs, connectivity between the MB and the central complex and inputs to DANs, including feedback from MBONs. Our results provide a foundation for further theoretical and experimental work.

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12/01/20 | The structural basis of Rubisco phase separation in the pyrenoid.
He S, Chou H, Matthies D, Wunder T, Meyer MT, Atkinson N, Martinez-Sanchez A, Jeffrey PD, Port SA, Patena W, He G, Chen VK, Hughson FM, McCormick AJ, Mueller-Cajar O, Engel BD, Yu Z, Jonikas MC
Nature Plants. 2020 Dec 01;6(12):1480-1490. doi: 10.1038/s41477-020-00811-y

Approximately one-third of global CO fixation occurs in a phase-separated algal organelle called the pyrenoid. The existing data suggest that the pyrenoid forms by the phase separation of the CO-fixing enzyme Rubisco with a linker protein; however, the molecular interactions underlying this phase separation remain unknown. Here we present the structural basis of the interactions between Rubisco and its intrinsically disordered linker protein Essential Pyrenoid Component 1 (EPYC1) in the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We find that EPYC1 consists of five evenly spaced Rubisco-binding regions that share sequence similarity. Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy of these regions in complex with Rubisco indicates that each Rubisco holoenzyme has eight binding sites for EPYC1, one on each Rubisco small subunit. Interface mutations disrupt binding, phase separation and pyrenoid formation. Cryo-electron tomography supports a model in which EPYC1 and Rubisco form a codependent multivalent network of specific low-affinity bonds, giving the matrix liquid-like properties. Our results advance the structural and functional understanding of the phase separation underlying the pyrenoid, an organelle that plays a fundamental role in the global carbon cycle.

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07/27/21 | Single-molecule imaging of chromatin remodelers reveals role of ATPase in promoting fast kinetics of target search and dissociation from chromatin.
Kim JM, Visanpattanasin P, Jou V, Liu S, Tang X, Zheng Q, Li KY, Snedeker J, Lavis LD, Lionnet T, Wu C
eLife. 2021 Jul 27;10:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.69387

Conserved ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers establish and maintain genome-wide chromatin architectures of regulatory DNA during cellular lifespan, but the temporal interactions between remodelers and chromatin targets have been obscure. We performed live-cell single-molecule tracking for RSC, SWI/SNF, CHD1, ISW1, ISW2, and INO80 remodeling complexes in budding yeast and detected hyperkinetic behaviors for chromatin-bound molecules that frequently transition to the free state for all complexes. Chromatin-bound remodelers display notably higher diffusion than nucleosomal histones, and strikingly fast dissociation kinetics with 4-7 s mean residence times. These enhanced dynamics require ATP binding or hydrolysis by the catalytic ATPase, uncovering an additional function to its established role in nucleosome remodeling. Kinetic simulations show that multiple remodelers can repeatedly occupy the same promoter region on a timescale of minutes, implicating an unending 'tug-of-war' that controls a temporally shifting window of accessibility for the transcription initiation machinery.

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07/23/21 | YAP1 nuclear efflux and transcriptional reprograming follow membrane diminution upon VSV-G-induced cell fusion.
Feliciano D, Ott CM, Espinosa-Medina I, Weigel AV, Benedetti L, Milano KM, Tang Z, Lee T, Kliman HJ, Guller SM, Lippincott-Schwartz J
Nature Communications. 2021 Jul 23;12(1):4502. doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-24708-2

Cells in many tissues, such as bone, muscle, and placenta, fuse into syncytia to acquire new functions and transcriptional programs. While it is known that fused cells are specialized, it is unclear whether cell-fusion itself contributes to programmatic-changes that generate the new cellular state. Here, we address this by employing a fusogen-mediated, cell-fusion system to create syncytia from undifferentiated cells. RNA-Seq analysis reveals VSV-G-induced cell fusion precedes transcriptional changes. To gain mechanistic insights, we measure the plasma membrane surface area after cell-fusion and observe it diminishes through increases in endocytosis. Consequently, glucose transporters internalize, and cytoplasmic glucose and ATP transiently decrease. This reduced energetic state activates AMPK, which inhibits YAP1, causing transcriptional-reprogramming and cell-cycle arrest. Impairing either endocytosis or AMPK activity prevents YAP1 inhibition and cell-cycle arrest after fusion. Together, these data demonstrate plasma membrane diminishment upon cell-fusion causes transient nutrient stress that may promote transcriptional-reprogramming independent from extrinsic cues.

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07/22/21 | Molecular characterization of projection neuron subtypes in the mouse olfactory bulb.
Zeppilli S, Ackels T, Attey R, Klimpert N, Kimberly Ritola D, Boeing S, Crombach A, Schaefer AT, Fleischmann A
eLife. 2021 Jul 22;10:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.65445

Projection neurons (PNs) in the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB) receive input from the nose and project to diverse cortical and subcortical areas. Morphological and physiological studies have highlighted functional heterogeneity, yet no molecular markers have been described that delineate PN subtypes. Here, we used viral injections into olfactory cortex and fluorescent nucleus sorting to enrich PNs for high-throughput single nucleus and bulk RNA deep sequencing. Transcriptome analysis and RNA hybridization identified distinct mitral and tufted cell populations with characteristic transcription factor network topology, cell adhesion and excitability-related gene expression. Finally, we describe a new computational approach for integrating bulk and snRNA-seq data, and provide evidence that different mitral cell populations preferentially project to different target regions. Together, we have identified potential molecular and gene regulatory mechanisms underlying PN diversity and provide new molecular entry points into studying the diverse functional roles of mitral and tufted cell subtypes.

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07/12/21 | Enabling Photocatalytic Activation of Rapid Bioorthogonal Chemistry by Repurposing Silicon-Rhodamine Fluorophores as Cytocompatible Far-Red Photocatalysts.
Wang C, Zhang H, Zhang T, Zou X, Wang H, Rosenberger JE, Vannam R, Trout WS, Grimm JB, Lavis LD, Thorpe C, Jia X, Li Z, Fox JM
Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2021 Jul 12:. doi: 10.1021/jacs.1c05547

Chromophores that absorb in the tissue-penetrant far-red/near-infrared window have long served as photocatalysts to generate singlet oxygen for photodynamic therapy. However, the cytotoxicity and side reactions associated with singlet oxygen sensitization have posed a problem for using long-wavelength photocatalysis to initiate other types of chemical reactions in biological environments. Herein, silicon-Rhodamine compounds (SiRs) are described as photocatalysts for inducing rapid bioorthogonal chemistry using 660 nm light through the oxidation of a dihydrotetrazine to a tetrazine in the presence of cyclooctene dienophiles. SiRs have been commonly used as fluorophores for bioimaging but have not been applied to catalyze chemical reactions. A series of SiR derivatives were evaluated, and the Janelia Fluor-SiR dyes were found to be especially effective in catalyzing photooxidation (typically 3%). A dihydrotetrazine/tetrazine pair is described that displays high stability in both oxidation states. A protein that was site-selectively modified by cyclooctene was quantitatively conjugated upon exposure to 660 nm light and a dihydrotetrazine. By contrast, a previously described methylene blue catalyst was found to rapidly degrade the protein. SiR-red light photocatalysis was used to cross-link hyaluronic acid derivatives functionalized by dihydrotetrazine and cyclooctenes, enabling 3D culture of human prostate cancer cells. Photoinducible hydrogel formation could also be carried out in live mice through subcutaneous injection of a Cy7-labeled hydrogel precursor solution, followed by brief irradiation to produce a stable hydrogel. This cytocompatible method for using red light photocatalysis to activate bioorthogonal chemistry is anticipated to find broad applications where spatiotemporal control is needed in biological environments.

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07/05/21 | Lipid droplets in the nervous system.
Ralhan I, Chang C, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Ioannou MS
Journal of Cell Biology. 2021 Jul 05;220(7):. doi: 10.1083/jcb.202102136

Lipid droplets are dynamic intracellular lipid storage organelles that respond to the physiological state of cells. In addition to controlling cell metabolism, they play a protective role for many cellular stressors, including oxidative stress. Despite prior descriptions of lipid droplets appearing in the brain as early as a century ago, only recently has the role of lipid droplets in cells found in the brain begun to be understood. Lipid droplet functions have now been described for cells of the nervous system in the context of development, aging, and an increasing number of neuropathologies. Here, we review the basic mechanisms of lipid droplet formation, turnover, and function and discuss how these mechanisms enable lipid droplets to function in different cell types of the nervous system under healthy and pathological conditions.

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07/01/21 | Automatic Detection of Synaptic Partners in a Whole-Brain Drosophila EM Dataset
Buhmann J, Sheridan A, Gerhard S, Krause R, Nguyen T, Heinrich L, Schlegel P, Lee WA, Wilson R, Saalfeld S, Jefferis G, Bock D, Turaga S, Cook M, Funke J
Nature Methods. 2021 Jul 1;18(8):771-4. doi: 10.1038/s41592-021-01183-7

The study of neural circuits requires the reconstruction of neurons and the identification of synaptic connections between them. To scale the reconstruction to the size of whole-brain datasets, semi-automatic methods are needed to solve those tasks. Here, we present an automatic method for synaptic partner identification in insect brains, which uses convolutional neural networks to identify post-synaptic sites and their pre-synaptic partners. The networks can be trained from human generated point annotations alone and requires only simple post-processing to obtain final predictions. We used our method to extract 244 million putative synaptic partners in the fifty-teravoxel full adult fly brain (FAFB) electron microscopy (EM) dataset and evaluated its accuracy on 146,643 synapses from 702 neurons with a total cable length of 312 mm in four different brain regions. The predicted synaptic connections can be used together with a neuron segmentation to infer a connectivity graph with high accuracy: 96% of edges between connected neurons are correctly classified as weakly connected (less than five synapses) and strongly connected (at least five synapses). Our synaptic partner predictions for the FAFB dataset are publicly available, together with a query library allowing automatic retrieval of up- and downstream neurons.

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