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1424 Janelia Publications

Showing 1-10 of 1424 results
10/18/18 | In toto imaging and reconstruction of post-implantation mouse development at the single-cell level.
McDole K, Guignard L, Amat F, Berger A, Malandain G, Royer LA, Turaga SC, Branson K, Keller PJ
Cell. 2018 Oct 10;175(3):859-876. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2018.09.031

The mouse embryo has long been central to the study of mammalian development; however, elucidating the cell behaviors governing gastrulation and the formation of tissues and organs remains a fundamental challenge. A major obstacle is the lack of live imaging and image analysis technologies capable of systematically following cellular dynamics across the developing embryo. We developed a light-sheet microscope that adapts itself to the dramatic changes in size, shape, and optical properties of the post-implantation mouse embryo and captures its development from gastrulation to early organogenesis at the cellular level. We furthermore developed a computational framework for reconstructing long-term cell tracks, cell divisions, dynamic fate maps, and maps of tissue morphogenesis across the entire embryo. By jointly analyzing cellular dynamics in multiple embryos registered in space and time, we built a dynamic atlas of post-implantation mouse development that, together with our microscopy and computational methods, is provided as a resource.

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10/15/18 | The timing of action determines reward prediction signals in identified midbrain dopamine neurons.
Coddington LT, Dudman JT
Nature Neuroscience. 2018 Oct 15:. doi: 10.1038/s41593-018-0245-7

Animals adapt their behavior in response to informative sensory cues using multiple brain circuits. The activity of midbrain dopaminergic neurons is thought to convey a critical teaching signal: reward-prediction error. Although reward-prediction error signals are thought to be essential to learning, little is known about the dynamic changes in the activity of midbrain dopaminergic neurons as animals learn about novel sensory cues and appetitive rewards. Here we describe a large dataset of cell-attached recordings of identified dopaminergic neurons as naive mice learned a novel cue-reward association. During learning midbrain dopaminergic neuron activity results from the summation of sensory cue-related and movement initiation-related response components. These components are both a function of reward expectation yet they are dissociable. Learning produces an increasingly precise coordination of action initiation following sensory cues that results in apparent reward-prediction error correlates. Our data thus provide new insights into the circuit mechanisms that underlie a critical computation in a highly conserved learning circuit.

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10/11/18 | Development of 2-colour and 3D SMLM data analysis methods for fibrous spatial point patterns.
Peters R, Griffié J, Williamson D, Aaron J, Khuon S, Owen D
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. 2018 Oct 11:. doi: 10.1088/1361-6463/aae7ac

Abstract ingle molecule localisation microscopy (SMLM), experimentally achieved over a decade ago, has become a routinely used analytical tool across the life sciences. Synergistic advances in probe chemistry, optical physics and data analysis has propelled SMLM into the quantitative realm, enabling unprecedented access to the cellular machinery at the nanoscale. In its early years, SMLM primarily served as a platform for impressive rendered images of sub diffraction scale structures, however more recently a shift towards interrogating SMLM point pattern data in a robust mathematical framework has occurred. A prevalent theme in the SMLM field is the need for quantitative analytical methods, to better understand the underlying processes on which SMLM reports and to extract statistically valid biological insights. Whilst some forms of post processing analytics, for example cluster analysis, have been widely studied, others such as fibre analysis remain in their infancy. Here, we review the current state of the art of cluster analysis and fibre analysis and present new methods for their implementation in both 3D SMLM data sets and multi-colour data.

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10/11/18 | Thy1 transgenic mice expressing the red fluorescent calcium indicator jRGECO1a for neuronal population imaging in vivo.
Dana H, Novak O, Guardado-Montesino M, Fransen JW, Hu A, Borghuis BG, Guo C, Kim DS, Svoboda K
PloS One. 2018;13(10):e0205444. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0205444

Calcium imaging is commonly used to measure the neural activity of large groups of neurons in mice. Genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) can be delivered for this purpose using non-invasive genetic methods. Compared to viral gene transfer, transgenic targeting of GECIs provides stable long-term expression and obviates the need for invasive viral injections. Transgenic mice expressing the green GECI GCaMP6 are already widely used. Here we present the generation and characterization of transgenic mice expressing the sensitive red GECI jRGECO1a, driven by the Thy1 promoter. Four transgenic lines with different expression patterns showed sufficiently high expression for cellular in vivo imaging. We used two-photon microscopy to characterize visual responses of individual neurons in the visual cortex in vivo. The signal-to-noise ratio in transgenic mice was comparable to, or better than, mice transduced with adeno-associated virus. In addition, we show that Thy1-jRGECO1a transgenic mice are useful for transcranial population imaging and functional mapping using widefield fluorescence microscopy. We also demonstrate imaging of visual responses in retinal ganglion cells in vitro. Thy1-jRGECO1a transgenic mice are therefore a useful addition to the toolbox for imaging activity in intact neural networks.

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10/04/18 | Noncanonical autophagy at ER exit sites regulates procollagen turnover.
Omari S, Makareeva E, Roberts-Pilgrim A, Mirigian L, Jarnik M, Ott C, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Leikin S
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2018 Oct 04:. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1814552115

Type I collagen is the main component of bone matrix and other connective tissues. Rerouting of its procollagen precursor to a degradative pathway is crucial for osteoblast survival in pathologies involving excessive intracellular buildup of procollagen that is improperly folded and/or trafficked. What cellular mechanisms underlie this rerouting remains unclear. To study these mechanisms, we employed live-cell imaging and correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) to examine procollagen trafficking both in wild-type mouse osteoblasts and osteoblasts expressing a bone pathology-causing mutant procollagen. We found that although most procollagen molecules successfully trafficked through the secretory pathway in these cells, a subpopulation did not. The latter molecules appeared in numerous dispersed puncta colocalizing with COPII subunits, autophagy markers and ubiquitin machinery, with more puncta seen in mutant procollagen-expressing cells. Blocking endoplasmic reticulum exit site (ERES) formation suppressed the number of these puncta, suggesting they formed after procollagen entry into ERESs. The punctate structures containing procollagen, COPII, and autophagic markers did not move toward the Golgi but instead were relatively immobile. They appeared to be quickly engulfed by nearby lysosomes through a bafilomycin-insensitive pathway. CLEM and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments suggested engulfment occurred through a noncanonical form of autophagy resembling microautophagy of ERESs. Overall, our findings reveal that a subset of procollagen molecules is directed toward lysosomal degradation through an autophagic pathway originating at ERESs, providing a mechanism to remove excess procollagen from cells.

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10/03/18 | A toolbox for multiplexed super-resolution imaging of the E. coli nucleoid and membrane using novel PAINT labels.
Spahn CK, Glaesmann M, Grimm JB, Ayala AX, Lavis LD, Heilemann M
Scientific Reports. 2018 Oct 03;8(1):14768. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-33052-3

Maintenance of the bacterial homeostasis initially emanates from interactions between proteins and the bacterial nucleoid. Investigating their spatial correlation requires high spatial resolution, especially in tiny, highly confined and crowded bacterial cells. Here, we present super-resolution microscopy using a palette of fluorescent labels that bind transiently to either the membrane or the nucleoid of fixed E. coli cells. The presented labels are easily applicable, versatile and allow long-term single-molecule super-resolution imaging independent of photobleaching. The different spectral properties allow for multiplexed imaging in combination with other localisation-based super-resolution imaging techniques. As examples for applications, we demonstrate correlated super-resolution imaging of the bacterial nucleoid with the position of genetic loci, of nascent DNA in correlation to the entire nucleoid, and of the nucleoid of metabolically arrested cells. We furthermore show that DNA- and membrane-targeting labels can be combined with photoactivatable fluorescent proteins and visualise the nano-scale distribution of RNA polymerase relative to the nucleoid in drug-treated E. coli cells.

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10/03/18 | moxMaple3: a photoswitchable fluorescent protein for PALM and protein highlighting in oxidizing cellular environments.
Kaberniuk AA, Mohr MA, Verkhusha VV, Snapp EL
Scientific Reports. 2018 Oct 03;8(1):14738. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-32955-5

The ability of fluorescent proteins (FPs) to fold robustly is fundamental to the autocatalytic formation of the chromophore. While the importance of the tertiary protein structure is well appreciated, the impact of individual amino acid mutations for FPs is often not intuitive and requires direct testing. In this study, we describe the engineering of a monomeric photoswitchable FP, moxMaple3, for use in oxidizing cellular environments, especially the eukaryotic secretory pathway. Surprisingly, a point mutation to replace a cysteine substantially improved the yield of correctly folded FP capable of chromophore formation, regardless of cellular environment. The improved folding of moxMaple3 increases the fraction of visibly tagged fusion proteins, as well as FP performance in PALM super-resolution microscopy, and thus makes moxMaple3 a robust monomeric FP choice for PALM and optical highlighting applications.

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10/02/18 | Integrin-mediated attachment of the blastoderm to the vitelline envelope impacts gastrulation of insects.
Muenster S, Jain A, Mietke A, Pavlopoulos A, Grill SW, Tomancak P
bioRxiv. 2018 Oct 2:. doi: 10.1101/421701

During gastrulation, physical forces reshape the simple embryonic tissue to form a complex body plan of multicellular organisms. These forces often cause large-scale asymmetric movements of the embryonic tissue. In many embryos, the tissue undergoing gastrulation movements is surrounded by a rigid protective shell. While it is well recognized that gastrulation movements depend on forces generated by tissue-intrinsic contractility, it is not known if interactions between the tissue and the protective shell provide additional forces that impact gastrulation. Here we show that a particular part of the blastoderm tissue of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum tightly adheres in a temporally coordinated manner to the vitelline envelope surrounding the embryo. This attachment generates an additional force that counteracts the tissue-intrinsic contractile forces to create asymmetric tissue movements. Furthermore, this localized attachment is mediated by a specific integrin, and its knock-down leads to a gastrulation phenotype consistent with complete loss of attachment. Moreover, analysis of another integrin in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster suggests that gastrulation in this organism also relies on adhesion between the blastoderm and the vitelline. Together, our findings reveal a conserved mechanism whereby the spatiotemporal pattern of tissue adhesion to the vitelline envelope provides controllable counter-forces that shape gastrulation movements in insects.

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09/21/18 | Cryo-EM analysis of the T3S injectisome reveals the structure of the needle and open secretin.
Hu J, Worrall LJ, Hong C, Vuckovic M, Atkinson CE, Caveney N, Yu Z, Strynadka NC
Nature Communications. 2018 Sep 21;9(1):3840. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-06298-8

The bacterial type III secretion system, or injectisome, is a syringe shaped nanomachine essential for the virulence of many disease causing Gram-negative bacteria. At the core of the injectisome structure is the needle complex, a continuous channel formed by the highly oligomerized inner and outer membrane hollow rings and a polymerized helical needle filament which spans through and projects into the infected host cell. Here we present the near-atomic resolution structure of a needle complex from the prototypical Salmonella Typhimurium SPI-1 type III secretion system, with local masking protocols allowing for model building and refinement of the major membrane spanning components of the needle complex base in addition to an isolated needle filament. This work provides significant insight into injectisome structure and assembly and importantly captures the molecular basis for substrate induced gating in the giant outer membrane secretin portal family.

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09/19/18 | Communication from learned to innate olfactory processing centers is required for memory retrieval in Drosophila.
Dolan M, Belliart-Guérin G, Bates AS, Frechter S, Lampin-Saint-Amaux A, Aso Y, Roberts RJ, Schlegel P, Wong A, Hammad A, Bock D, Rubin GM, Preat T, Placais P, Jefferis GS
Neuron. 2018 Sep 19:. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2018.08.037

The behavioral response to a sensory stimulus may depend on both learned and innate neuronal representations. How these circuits interact to produce appropriate behavior is unknown. In Drosophila, the lateral horn (LH) and mushroom body (MB) are thought to mediate innate and learned olfactory behavior, respectively, although LH function has not been tested directly. Here we identify two LH cell types (PD2a1 and PD2b1) that receive input from an MB output neuron required for recall of aversive olfactory memories. These neurons are required for aversive memory retrieval and modulated by training. Connectomics data demonstrate that PD2a1 and PD2b1 neurons also receive direct input from food odor-encoding neurons. Consistent with this, PD2a1 and PD2b1 are also necessary for unlearned attraction to some odors, indicating that these neurons have a dual behavioral role. This provides a circuit mechanism by which learned and innate olfactory information can interact in identified neurons to produce appropriate behavior.

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