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1817 Janelia Publications

Showing 21-30 of 1817 results
09/14/20 | Novel fluorescent ligands enable single-molecule localization microscopy of the dopamine transporter.
Guthrie D, Klein Herenbrink C, Lycas M, Ku T, Bonifazi A, DeVree B, Mathiasen S, Javitch J, Grimm JB, Lavis LD, Gether U, Newman AH
ACS Chemical Neuroscience. 2020 Sep 14:. doi: 10.1021/acschemneuro.0c00397

The dopamine transporter (DAT) is critical for spatiotemporal control of dopaminergic neurotransmission and the target for therapeutic agents, including ADHD medications, and abused substances, such as cocaine. Here, we develop new fluorescently labeled ligands that bind DAT with high affinity and enable single-molecule detection of the transporter. The cocaine analogue MFZ2-12 (1) was conjugated to novel rhodamine-based Janelia Fluorophores (JF549 and JF646). High affinity binding of the resulting ligands to DAT was demonstrated by potent inhibition of [3H]dopamine uptake in DAT transfected CAD cells and by competition radioligand binding experiments on rat striatal membranes. Visualization of binding was substantiated by confocal or TIRF microscopy revealing selective binding of the analogues to DAT transfected CAD cells. Single particle tracking experiments were performed with JF549-conjugated DG3-80 (3) and JF646-conjugated DG4-91 (4) on DAT transfected CAD cells enabling quantification and categorization of the dynamic behavior of DAT into four distinct motion classes (immobile, confined, Brownian, and directed). Finally, we show that the ligands can be used in direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) experiments permitting further analyses of DAT distribution on the nanoscale. In summary, these novel fluorescent ligands are promising new tools for studying DAT localization and regulation with single-molecule resolution.

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09/09/20 | Cell-type specific outcome representation in primary motor cortex.
Lavzin M, Levy S, Benisty H, Dubin U, Brosh Z, Aeed F, Mensh BD, Schiller Y, Meir R, Barak O, Talmon R, Hantman AW, Schiller J
Neuron. 2020 Sep 9;107(5):954-71. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2020.06.006

Adaptive movements are critical to animal survival. To guide future actions, the brain monitors different outcomes, including achievement of movement and appetitive goals. The nature of outcome signals and their neuronal and network realization in motor cortex (M1), which commands the performance of skilled movements, is largely unknown. Using a dexterity task, calcium imaging, optogenetic perturbations, and behavioral manipulations, we studied outcome signals in murine M1. We find two populations of layer 2-3 neurons, “success”- and “failure” related neurons that develop with training and report end-result of trials. In these neurons, prolonged responses were recorded after success or failure trials, independent of reward and kinematics. In contrast, the initial state of layer-5 pyramidal tract neurons contains a memory trace of the previous trial’s outcome. Inter-trial cortical activity was needed to learn new task requirements. These M1 reflective layer-specific performance outcome signals, can support reinforcement motor learning of skilled behavior.

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09/03/20 | A connectome of the adult drosophila central brain.
Xu CS, Januszewski M, Lu Z, Takemura S, Hayworth KJ, Huang G, Shinomiya K, Maitin-Shepard J, Ackerman D, Berg S, Blakely T, Bogovic J, Clements J, Dolafi T, Hubbard P, Kainmueller D, Katz W, Kawase T, Khairy KA, Leavitt L, Li PH, Lindsey L, Neubarth N, Olbris DJ, Otsuna H, Troutman ET, Umayam L, Zhao T, Ito M, Goldammer J, Wolff T, Svirskas R, Schlegel P, Neace ER, Knecht CJ, Alvarado CX, Bailey DA, Ballinger S, Borycz JA, Canino BS
eLife. 2020 Sep 03:. doi:

The neural circuits responsible for behavior remain largely unknown. Previous efforts have reconstructed the complete circuits of small animals, with hundreds of neurons, and selected circuits for larger animals. Here we (the FlyEM project at Janelia and collaborators at Google) summarize new methods and present the complete circuitry of a large fraction of the brain of a much more complex animal, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Improved methods include new procedures to prepare, image, align, segment, find synapses, and proofread such large data sets; new methods that define cell types based on connectivity in addition to morphology; and new methods to simplify access to a large and evolving data set. From the resulting data we derive a better definition of computational compartments and their connections; an exhaustive atlas of cell examples and types, many of them novel; detailed circuits for most of the central brain; and exploration of the statistics and structure of different brain compartments, and the brain as a whole. We make the data public, with a web site and resources specifically designed to make it easy to explore, for all levels of expertise from the expert to the merely curious. The public availability of these data, and the simplified means to access it, dramatically reduces the effort needed to answer typical circuit questions, such as the identity of upstream and downstream neural partners, the circuitry of brain regions, and to link the neurons defined by our analysis with genetic reagents that can be used to study their functions.

Note: In the next few weeks, we will release a series of papers with more involved discussions. One paper will detail the hemibrain reconstruction with more extensive analysis and interpretation made possible by this dense connectome. Another paper will explore the central complex, a brain region involved in navigation, motor control, and sleep. A final paper will present insights from the mushroom body, a center of multimodal associative learning in the fly brain.

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09/01/20 | Actin chromobody imaging reveals sub-organellar actin dynamics.
Schiavon CR, Zhang T, Zhao B, Moore AS, Wales P, Andrade LR, Wu M, Sung T, Dayn Y, Feng JW, Quintero OA, Shadel GS, Grosse R, Manor U
Nature Methods. 2020 Sep 01;17(9):917-21. doi: 10.1038/s41592-020-0926-5

The actin cytoskeleton plays multiple critical roles in cells, from cell migration to organelle dynamics. The small and transient actin structures regulating organelle dynamics are challenging to detect with fluorescence microscopy, making it difficult to determine whether actin filaments are directly associated with specific membranes. To address these limitations, we developed fluorescent-protein-tagged actin nanobodies, termed 'actin chromobodies' (ACs), targeted to organelle membranes to enable high-resolution imaging of sub-organellar actin dynamics.

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09/01/20 | Extensive and spatially variable within-cell-type heterogeneity across the basolateral amygdala.
O'Leary TP, Sullivan KE, Wang L, Clements J, Lemire AL, Cembrowski MS
eLife. 2020 Sep 01;9:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.59003

The basolateral amygdala complex (BLA), extensively connected with both local amygdalar nuclei as well as long-range circuits, is involved in a diverse array of functional roles. Understanding the mechanisms of such functional diversity will be greatly informed by understanding the cell-type-specific landscape of the BLA. Here, beginning with single-cell RNA sequencing, we identified both discrete and graded continuous gene-expression differences within the mouse BLA. Via in situ hybridization, we next mapped this discrete transcriptomic heterogeneity onto a sharp spatial border between the basal and lateral amygdala nuclei, and identified continuous spatial gene-expression gradients within each of these regions. These discrete and continuous spatial transformations of transcriptomic cell-type identity were recapitulated by local morphology as well as long-range connectivity. Thus, BLA excitatory neurons are a highly heterogenous collection of neurons that spatially covary in molecular, cellular, and circuit properties. This heterogeneity likely drives pronounced spatial variation in BLA computation and function.

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08/30/20 | Parvalbumin+ and Npas1+ Pallidal neurons have distinct circuit topology and function.
Pamukcu A, Cui Q, Xenias HS, Berceau BL, Augustine EC, Fan I, Hantman AW, Lerner TN, Boca SM, Chan CS
Journal of Neuroscience. 2020 Aug 30:
08/27/20 | Cortical RORβ is required for layer 4 transcriptional identity and barrel integrity.
Clark EA, Rutlin M, Capano L, Aviles S, Saadon JR, Taneja P, Zhang Q, Bullis JB, Lauer T, Myers E, Schulmann A, Forrest D, Nelson SB
eLife. 2020 Aug 27;9:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.52370

Retinoic Acid-Related Orphan Receptor Beta (RORβ) is a transcription factor (TF) and marker of layer 4 (L4) neurons, which are distinctive both in transcriptional identity and the ability to form aggregates such as barrels in rodent somatosensory cortex. However, the relationship between transcriptional identity and L4 cytoarchitecture is largely unknown. We find RORβ is required in the cortex for L4 aggregation into barrels and thalamocortical afferent (TCA) segregation. Interestingly, barrel organization also degrades with age in wildtype mice. Loss of RORβ delays excitatory input and disrupts gene expression and chromatin accessibility, with down-regulation of L4 and up-regulation of L5 genes, suggesting a disruption in cellular specification. Expression and binding site accessibility change for many other TFs, including closure of neurodevelopmental TF binding sites and increased expression and binding capacity of activity-regulated TFs. Lastly, a putative target of RORβ, , is down-regulated without RORβ, and knock-out alone disrupts TCA organization in adult barrels.

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08/25/20 | A post-invasion role for type III effector TarP in modulating the dynamics and organization of host cell focal adhesions.
Pedrosa AT, Murphy KN, Nogueira AT, Brinkworth AJ, Thwaites TR, Aaron J, Chew T, Carabeo RA
Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2020 Aug 25:. doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA120.015219

The human pathogen targets epithelial cells lining the genital mucosa. We observed that infection of various cell types, including fibroblasts and epithelial cells resulted in the formation of unusually stable and mature focal adhesions that resisted disassembly induced by the myosin II inhibitor, blebbistatin. Super-resolution microscopy revealed in infected cells the vertical displacement of paxillin and FAK from the signaling layer of focal adhesions; while vinculin remained in its normal position within the force transduction layer. The candidate type III effector TarP which localized to focal adhesions during infection and when expressed ectopically, was sufficient to mimic both the reorganization and blebbistatin-resistant phenotypes. These effects of TarP, including its localization to focal adhesions, required a post-invasion interaction with the host protein vinculin through a specific domain at the C-terminus of TarP. This interaction is repurposed from an actin-recruiting and -remodeling complex to one that mediates nano-architectural and dynamic changes of focal adhesions. The consequence of -stabilized focal adhesions was restricted cell motility and enhanced attachment to the extracellular matrix. Thus, via a novel mechanism, inserts TarP within focal adhesions to alter their organization and stability.

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08/20/20 | Rational design of bioavailable photosensitizers for manipulation and imaging of biological systems.
Binns TC, Ayala AX, Grimm JB, Tkachuk AN, Castillon GA, Phan S, Zhang L, Brown TA, Liu Z, Adams SR, Ellisman MH, Koyama M, Lavis LD
Cell Chemical Biology. 2020 Aug 20;27(8):1063-72. doi: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2020.07.001

Light-mediated chemical reactions are powerful methods for manipulating and interrogating biological systems. Photosensitizers, compounds that generate reactive oxygen species upon excitation with light, can be utilized for numerous biological experiments, but the repertoire of bioavailable photosensitizers is limited. Here, we describe the synthesis, characterization, and utility of two photosensitizers based upon the widely used rhodamine scaffold and demonstrate their efficacy for chromophore-assisted light inactivation, cell ablation in culture and in vivo, and photopolymerization of diaminobenzidine for electron microscopy. These chemical tools will facilitate a broad range of applications spanning from targeted destruction of proteins to high-resolution imaging.

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08/17/20 | Complete connectomic reconstruction of olfactory projection neurons in the fly brain.
Bates AS, Schlegel P, Roberts RJ, Drummond N, Tamimi IF, Turnbull R, Zhao X, Marin EC, Popovici PD, Dhawan S, Jamasb A, Javier A, Serratosa Capdevila L, Li F, Rubin GM, Waddell S, Bock DD, Costa M, Jefferis GS
Current Biology. 2020 Aug 17;30(16):3183-99. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2020.06.042

Nervous systems contain sensory neurons, local neurons, projection neurons, and motor neurons. To understand how these building blocks form whole circuits, we must distil these broad classes into neuronal cell types and describe their network connectivity. Using an electron micrograph dataset for an entire Drosophila melanogaster brain, we reconstruct the first complete inventory of olfactory projections connecting the antennal lobe, the insect analog of the mammalian olfactory bulb, to higher-order brain regions in an adult animal brain. We then connect this inventory to extant data in the literature, providing synaptic-resolution "holotypes" both for heavily investigated and previously unknown cell types. Projection neurons are approximately twice as numerous as reported by light level studies; cell types are stereotyped, but not identical, in cell and synapse numbers between brain hemispheres. The lateral horn, the insect analog of the mammalian cortical amygdala, is the main target for this olfactory information and has been shown to guide innate behavior. Here, we find new connectivity motifs, including axo-axonic connectivity between projection neurons, feedback, and lateral inhibition of these axons by a large population of neurons, and the convergence of different inputs, including non-olfactory inputs and memory-related feedback onto third-order olfactory neurons. These features are less prominent in the mushroom body calyx, the insect analog of the mammalian piriform cortex and a center for associative memory. Our work provides a complete neuroanatomical platform for future studies of the adult Drosophila olfactory system.

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