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1999 Janelia Publications

Showing 21-30 of 1999 results
09/02/21 | A framework for studying behavioral evolution by reconstructing ancestral repertoires.
Hernández DG, Rivera C, Cande J, Zhou B, Stern D, Berman GJ
eLife. 2021 Sep 02;10:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.61806

Although different animal species often exhibit extensive variation in many behaviors, typically scientists examine one or a small number of behaviors in any single study. Here, we propose a new framework to simultaneously study the evolution of many behaviors. We measured the behavioral repertoire of individuals from six species of fruit flies using unsupervised techniques and identified all stereotyped movements exhibited by each species. We then fit a Generalized Linear Mixed Model to estimate the intra- and inter-species behavioral covariances, and, by using the known phylogenetic relationships among species, we estimated the (unobserved) behaviors exhibited by ancestral species. We found that much of intra-specific behavioral variation has a similar covariance structure to previously described long-time scale variation in an individual's behavior, suggesting that much of the measured variation between individuals of a single species in our assay reflects differences in the status of neural networks, rather than genetic or developmental differences between individuals. We then propose a method to identify groups of behaviors that appear to have evolved in a correlated manner, illustrating how sets of behaviors, rather than individual behaviors, likely evolved. Our approach provides a new framework for identifying co-evolving behaviors and may provide new opportunities to study the mechanistic basis of behavioral evolution.

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09/02/21 | Classification and genetic targeting of cell types in the primary taste and premotor center of the adult brain.
Sterne GR, Otsuna H, Dickson BJ, Scott K
eLife. 2021 Sep 02;10:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.71679

Neural circuits carry out complex computations that allow animals to evaluate food, select mates, move toward attractive stimuli, and move away from threats. In insects, the subesophageal zone (SEZ) is a brain region that receives gustatory, pheromonal, and mechanosensory inputs and contributes to the control of diverse behaviors, including feeding, grooming, and locomotion. Despite its importance in sensorimotor transformations, the study of SEZ circuits has been hindered by limited knowledge of the underlying diversity of SEZ neurons. Here, we generate a collection of split-GAL4 lines that provides precise genetic targeting of 138 different SEZ cell types in adult , comprising approximately one third of all SEZ neurons. We characterize the single cell anatomy of these neurons and find that they cluster by morphology into six supergroups that organize the SEZ into discrete anatomical domains. We find that the majority of local SEZ interneurons are not classically polarized, suggesting rich local processing, whereas SEZ projection neurons tend to be classically polarized, conveying information to a limited number of higher brain regions. This study provides insight into the anatomical organization of the SEZ and generates resources that will facilitate further study of SEZ neurons and their contributions to sensory processing and behavior.

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09/02/21 | Electrode pooling can boost the yield of extracellular recordings with switchable silicon probes.
Lee KH, Ni Y, Colonell J, Karsh B, Putzeys J, Pachitariu M, Harris TD, Meister M
Nature Communications. 2021 Sep 02;12(1):5245. doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-25443-4

State-of-the-art silicon probes for electrical recording from neurons have thousands of recording sites. However, due to volume limitations there are typically many fewer wires carrying signals off the probe, which restricts the number of channels that can be recorded simultaneously. To overcome this fundamental constraint, we propose a method called electrode pooling that uses a single wire to serve many recording sites through a set of controllable switches. Here we present the framework behind this method and an experimental strategy to support it. We then demonstrate its feasibility by implementing electrode pooling on the Neuropixels 1.0 electrode array and characterizing its effect on signal and noise. Finally we use simulations to explore the conditions under which electrode pooling saves wires without compromising the content of the recordings. We make recommendations on the design of future devices to take advantage of this strategy.

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09/02/21 | Spatiotemporal coordination of transcription preinitiation complex assembly in live cells.
Nguyen VQ, Ranjan A, Liu S, Tang X, Ling YH, Wisniewski J, Mizuguchi G, Li KY, Jou V, Zheng Q, Lavis LD, Lionnet T, Wu C
Molecular Cell. 2021 Sep 02;81(17):3560-3575. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2021.07.022

Transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II) requires preinitiation complex (PIC) assembly at gene promoters. In the dynamic nucleus, where thousands of promoters are broadly distributed in chromatin, it is unclear how multiple individual components converge on any target to establish the PIC. Here we use live-cell, single-molecule tracking in S. cerevisiae to visualize constrained exploration of the nucleoplasm by PIC components and Mediator's key role in guiding this process. On chromatin, TFIID/TATA-binding protein (TBP), Mediator, and RNA Pol II instruct assembly of a short-lived PIC, which occurs infrequently but efficiently within a few seconds on average. Moreover, PIC exclusion by nucleosome encroachment underscores regulated promoter accessibility by chromatin remodeling. Thus, coordinated nuclear exploration and recruitment to accessible targets underlies dynamic PIC establishment in yeast. Our study provides a global spatiotemporal model for transcription initiation in live cells.

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08/30/21 | A genetic screen for Drosophila social isolation mutants and analysis of sex pistol.
Eddison M
Scientific Reports. 2021 Aug 30;11(1):17395. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-96871-x

Prolonged periods of forced social isolation is detrimental to well-being, yet we know little about which genes regulate susceptibility to its effects. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, social isolation induces stark changes in behavior including increased aggression, locomotor activity, and resistance to ethanol sedation. To identify genes regulating sensitivity to isolation, I screened a collection of sixteen hundred P-element insertion lines for mutants with abnormal levels of all three isolation-induced behaviors. The screen identified three mutants whose affected genes are likely central to regulating the effects of isolation in flies. One mutant, sex pistol (sxp), became extremely aggressive and resistant to ethanol sedation when socially isolated. sxp also had a high level of male-male courtship. The mutation in sxp reduced the expression of two minor isoforms of the actin regulator hts (adducin), as well as mildly reducing expression of CalpA, a calcium-dependent protease. As a consequence, sxp also had increased expression of the insulin-like peptide, dILP5. Analysis of the social behavior of sxp suggests that these minor hts isoforms function to limit isolation-induced aggression, while chronically high levels of dILP5 increase male-male courtship.

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Cardona Lab
08/27/21 | Synchronous and opponent thermosensors use flexible cross-inhibition to orchestrate thermal homeostasis.
Hernandez-Nunez L, Chen A, Budelli G, Berck ME, Richter V, Rist A, Thum AS, Cardona A, Klein M, Garrity P, Samuel AD
Science Advances. 2021 Aug 27;7(35):. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abg6707

Body temperature homeostasis is essential and reliant upon the integration of outputs from multiple classes of cooling- and warming-responsive cells. The computations that integrate these outputs are not understood. Here, we discover a set of warming cells (WCs) and show that the outputs of these WCs combine with previously described cooling cells (CCs) in a cross-inhibition computation to drive thermal homeostasis in larval WCs and CCs detect temperature changes using overlapping combinations of ionotropic receptors: Ir68a, Ir93a, and Ir25a for WCs and Ir21a, Ir93a, and Ir25a for CCs. WCs mediate avoidance to warming while cross-inhibiting avoidance to cooling, and CCs mediate avoidance to cooling while cross-inhibiting avoidance to warming. Ambient temperature-dependent regulation of the strength of WC- and CC-mediated cross-inhibition keeps larvae near their homeostatic set point. Using neurophysiology, quantitative behavioral analysis, and connectomics, we demonstrate how flexible integration between warming and cooling pathways can orchestrate homeostatic thermoregulation.

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08/25/21 | Endothelial junctional membrane protrusions serve as hotspots for neutrophil transmigration.
Arts JJ, Mahlandt EK, Grönloh M, Schimmel L, Noordstra I, Gordon E, van Steen AC, Tol S, Walzog B, van Rijssel J, Nolte MA, Postma M, Khuon S, Heddleston JM, Wait E, Chew TL, Winter M, Montanez E, Goedhart J, van Buul JD
eLife. 2021 Aug 25;10:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.66074

Upon inflammation, leukocytes rapidly transmigrate across the endothelium to enter the inflamed tissue. Evidence accumulates that leukocytes use preferred exit sites, though it is not yet clear how these hotspots in the endothelium are defined and how they are recognized by the leukocyte. Using lattice light sheet microscopy, we discovered that leukocytes prefer endothelial membrane protrusions at cell junctions for transmigration. Phenotypically, these junctional membrane protrusions are present in an asymmetric manner, meaning that one endothelial cell shows the protrusion and the adjacent one does not. Consequently, leukocytes cross the junction by migrating underneath the protruding endothelial cell. These protrusions depend on Rac1 activity and by using a photo-activatable Rac1 probe, we could artificially generate local exit-sites for leukocytes. Overall, we have discovered a new mechanism that uses local induced junctional membrane protrusions to facilitate/steer the leukocyte escape/exit from inflamed vessel walls.

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08/25/21 | Regulated exocytosis: Renal Aquaporin-2 3D Vesicular Network Organization and Association with F-actin.
Holst MR, Gammelgaard L, Aaron J, Login FH, Rajkumar S, Hahn U, Nejsum LN
American Journal of Physiology: Cell Physiology. 2021 Aug 25:. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00255.2021

Regulated vesicle exocytosis is a key response to extracellular stimuli in diverse physiological processes; including hormone regulated short-term urine concentration. In the renal collecting duct, the water channel aquaporin-2 localizes to the apical plasma membrane as well as small, sub-apical vesicles. In response to stimulation with the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin, aquaporin-2 containing vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane, which increases collecting duct water reabsorption and thus, urine concentration. The nano-scale size of these vesicles has limited analysis of their 3D organization. Using a cell system combined with 3D super resolution microscopy, we provide the first direct analysis of the 3D network of aquaporin-2 containing exocytic vesicles in a cell culture system. We show that aquaporin-2 vesicles are 43 ± 3nm in diameter, a size similar to synaptic vesicles, and that one fraction of AQP2 vesicles localized with the sub-cortical F-actin layer and the other localized in between the F-actin layer and the plasma membrane. Aquaporin-2 vesicles associated with F-actin and this association was enhanced in a serine 256 phospho-mimic of aquaporin-2, whose phosphorylation is a key event in antidiuretic hormone-mediated aquaporin-2 vesicle exocytosis.

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08/24/21 | Campylobacter jejuni Triggers Signaling through Host Cell Focal Adhesions To Inhibit Cell Motility.
Klappenbach CM, Negretti NM, Aaron J, Chew T, Konkel ME
mBio. 2021 Aug 24:e0149421. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01494-21

Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen that exploits the focal adhesions of intestinal cells to promote invasion and cause severe gastritis. Focal adhesions are multiprotein complexes involved in bidirectional signaling between the actin cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix. We investigated the dynamics of focal adhesion structure and function in C. jejuni-infected cells using a comprehensive set of approaches, including confocal microscopy of live and fixed cells, immunoblotting, and superresolution interferometric photoactivated localization microscopy (iPALM). We found that C. jejuni infection of epithelial cells results in increased focal adhesion size and altered topology. These changes resulted in a persistent modulatory effect on the host cell focal adhesion, evidenced by an increase in cell adhesion strength, a decrease in individual cell motility, and a reduction in collective cell migration. We discovered that C. jejuni infection causes an increase in phosphorylation of paxillin and an alteration of paxillin turnover at the focal adhesion, which together represent a potential mechanistic basis for altered cell motility. Finally, we observed that infection of epithelial cells with the C. jejuni wild-type strain in the presence of a protein synthesis inhibitor, a C. jejuni CadF and FlpA fibronectin-binding protein mutant, or a C. jejuni flagellar export mutant blunts paxillin phosphorylation and partially reestablishes individual host cell motility and collective cell migration. These findings provide a potential mechanism for the restricted intestinal repair observed in C. jejuni-infected animals and raise the possibility that bacteria targeting extracellular matrix components can alter cell behavior after binding and internalization by manipulating focal adhesions. Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen that causes severe gastritis. We investigated the dynamics of focal adhesion structure and function in C. jejuni-infected epithelial cells. Focal adhesions act as signaling complexes that connect the extracellular matrix to the intracellular cytoskeleton. The key findings of this study show that C. jejuni changes the structure (size and position), composition, and function of cellular focal adhesions using a combination of virulence factors. Mechanistically, we found that the changes in focal adhesion dynamics are dependent upon the activation of host cell signaling pathways, which affect the assembly and disassembly of cellular proteins from the focal adhesion. To summarize, we have identified a new cellular phenotype in C. jejuni-infected cells that may be responsible for the restricted intestinal repair observed in C. jejuni-infected animals.

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08/24/21 | Campylobacter jejuni Triggers Signaling through Host Cell Focal Adhesions To Inhibit Cell Motility.
Klappenbach CM, Negretti NM, Aaron J, Chew T, Konkel ME
mBio. 2021 Aug 24;12(4):e0149421. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01494-21

Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen that exploits the focal adhesions of intestinal cells to promote invasion and cause severe gastritis. Focal adhesions are multiprotein complexes involved in bidirectional signaling between the actin cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix. We investigated the dynamics of focal adhesion structure and function in C. jejuni-infected cells using a comprehensive set of approaches, including confocal microscopy of live and fixed cells, immunoblotting, and superresolution interferometric photoactivated localization microscopy (iPALM). We found that C. jejuni infection of epithelial cells results in increased focal adhesion size and altered topology. These changes resulted in a persistent modulatory effect on the host cell focal adhesion, evidenced by an increase in cell adhesion strength, a decrease in individual cell motility, and a reduction in collective cell migration. We discovered that C. jejuni infection causes an increase in phosphorylation of paxillin and an alteration of paxillin turnover at the focal adhesion, which together represent a potential mechanistic basis for altered cell motility. Finally, we observed that infection of epithelial cells with the C. jejuni wild-type strain in the presence of a protein synthesis inhibitor, a C. jejuni CadF and FlpA fibronectin-binding protein mutant, or a C. jejuni flagellar export mutant blunts paxillin phosphorylation and partially reestablishes individual host cell motility and collective cell migration. These findings provide a potential mechanism for the restricted intestinal repair observed in C. jejuni-infected animals and raise the possibility that bacteria targeting extracellular matrix components can alter cell behavior after binding and internalization by manipulating focal adhesions. Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen that causes severe gastritis. We investigated the dynamics of focal adhesion structure and function in C. jejuni-infected epithelial cells. Focal adhesions act as signaling complexes that connect the extracellular matrix to the intracellular cytoskeleton. The key findings of this study show that C. jejuni changes the structure (size and position), composition, and function of cellular focal adhesions using a combination of virulence factors. Mechanistically, we found that the changes in focal adhesion dynamics are dependent upon the activation of host cell signaling pathways, which affect the assembly and disassembly of cellular proteins from the focal adhesion. To summarize, we have identified a new cellular phenotype in C. jejuni-infected cells that may be responsible for the restricted intestinal repair observed in C. jejuni-infected animals.

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