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1391 Janelia Publications

Showing 71-80 of 1391 results
04/03/18 | A deep (learning) dive into a cell.
Branson K
Nature Methods. 2018 Apr 03;15(4):253-4. doi: 10.1038/nmeth.4658
04/02/18 | Accurate and sensitive quantification of protein-DNA binding affinity.
Rastogi C, Rube HT, Kribelbauer JF, Crocker J, Loker RE, Martini GD, Laptenko O, Freed-Pastor WA, Prives C, Stern DL, Mann RS, Bussemaker HJ
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2018 Apr 02:. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1714376115

Transcription factors (TFs) control gene expression by binding to genomic DNA in a sequence-specific manner. Mutations in TF binding sites are increasingly found to be associated with human disease, yet we currently lack robust methods to predict these sites. Here, we developed a versatile maximum likelihood framework named No Read Left Behind (NRLB) that infers a biophysical model of protein-DNA recognition across the full affinity range from a library of in vitro selected DNA binding sites. NRLB predicts human Max homodimer binding in near-perfect agreement with existing low-throughput measurements. It can capture the specificity of the p53 tetramer and distinguish multiple binding modes within a single sample. Additionally, we confirm that newly identified low-affinity enhancer binding sites are functional in vivo, and that their contribution to gene expression matches their predicted affinity. Our results establish a powerful paradigm for identifying protein binding sites and interpreting gene regulatory sequences in eukaryotic genomes.

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04/02/18 | Colour vision: A fresh view of lateral inhibition in Drosophila.
Longden KD
Current Biology : CB. 2018 Apr 02;28(7):R308-R311. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2018.02.052

A recent study reports a novel form of lateral inhibition between photoreceptors supporting colour vision in the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster.

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04/01/18 | 50 Hz volumetric functional imaging with continuously adjustable depth of focus.
Lu R, Tanimoto M, Koyama M, Na J
Biomedical Optics Express. 2018 Apr;9(4):1964-76. doi: 10.1364/BOE.9.001964

Understanding how neural circuits control behavior requires monitoring a large population of neurons with high spatial resolution and volume rate. Here we report an axicon-based Bessel beam module with continuously adjustable depth of focus (CADoF), that turns frame rate into volume rate by extending the excitation focus in the axial direction while maintaining high lateral resolutions. Cost-effective and compact, this CADoF Bessel module can be easily integrated into existing two-photon fluorescence microscopes. Simply translating one of the relay lenses along its optical axis enabled continuous adjustment of the axial length of the Bessel focus. We used this module to simultaneously monitor activity of spinal projection neurons extending over 60 µm depth in larval zebrafish at 50 Hz volume rate with adjustable axial extent of the imaged volume.

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04/01/18 | Evaluating the potential of using quantum dots for monitoring electrical signals in neurons.
Efros AL, Delehanty JB, Huston AL, Medintz IL, Barbic M, Harris TD
Nature Nanotechnology. 2018 Apr;13(4):278-288. doi: 10.1038/s41565-018-0107-1

Success in the projects aimed at providing an advanced understanding of the brain is directly predicated on making critical advances in nanotechnology. This Perspective addresses the unique interface of neuroscience and nanomaterials by considering the foundational problem of sensing neuron membrane voltage and offers a potential solution that may be facilitated by a prototypical nanomaterial. Despite substantial improvements, the visualization of instantaneous voltage changes within individual neurons, whether in cell culture or in vivo, at both the single-cell and network level at high speed remains complex and problematic. The unique properties of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have made them powerful fluorophores for bioimaging. What is not widely appreciated, however, is that QD photoluminescence is exquisitely sensitive to proximal electric fields. This property should be suitable for sensing voltage changes that occur in the active neuronal membrane. Here, we examine the potential role of QDs in addressing the important challenge of real-time optical voltage imaging.

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04/01/18 | Functional Imaging and Optogenetics in Drosophila.
Simpson JH, Looger LL
Genetics. 2018 Apr;208(4):1291-1309. doi: 10.1534/genetics.117.300228

Understanding how activity patterns in specific neural circuits coordinate an animal's behavior remains a key area of neuroscience research. Genetic tools and a brain of tractable complexity make a premier model organism for these studies. Here, we review the wealth of reagents available to map and manipulate neuronal activity with light.

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04/01/18 | Unnecessary tension.
Cox JD, Seltzer MJ
Lab Animal. 2018 Apr;47(4):91. doi: 10.1038/s41684-018-0024-9
03/29/18 | Multi-view light-sheet imaging and tracking with the MaMuT software reveals the cell lineage of a direct developing arthropod limb.
Wolff C, Tinevez J, Pietzsch T, Stamataki E, Harich B, Guignard L, Preibisch S, Shorte S, Keller PJ, Tomancak P, Pavlopoulos A
eLife. 2018 Mar 29:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.34410

During development, coordinated cell behaviors orchestrate tissue and organ morphogenesis. Detailed descriptions of cell lineages and behaviors provide a powerful framework to elucidate the mechanisms of morphogenesis. To study the cellular basis of limb development, we imaged transgenic fluorescently-labeled embryos from the crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis with multi-view light-sheet microscopy at high spatiotemporal resolution over several days of embryogenesis. The cell lineage of outgrowing thoracic limbs was reconstructed at single-cell resolution with new software called Massive Multi-view Tracker (MaMuT). In silico clonal analyses suggested that the early limb primordium becomes subdivided into anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral compartments whose boundaries intersect at the distal tip of the growing limb. Limb-bud formation is associated with spatial modulation of cell proliferation, while limb elongation is also driven by preferential orientation of cell divisions along the proximal-distal growth axis. Cellular reconstructions were predictive of the expression patterns of limb development genes including the BMP morphogen Decapentaplegic.

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03/28/18 | Architecture of the human GATOR1 and GATOR1-Rag GTPases complexes.
Shen K, Huang RK, Brignole EJ, Condon KJ, Valenstein ML, Chantranupong L, Bomaliyamu A, Choe A, Hong C, Yu Z, Sabatini DM
Nature. 2018 Mar 28;556(7699):64-9. doi: 10.1038/nature26158

Nutrients, such as amino acids and glucose, signal through the Rag GTPases to activate mTORC1. The GATOR1 protein complex-comprising DEPDC5, NPRL2 and NPRL3-regulates the Rag GTPases as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for RAGA; loss of GATOR1 desensitizes mTORC1 signalling to nutrient starvation. GATOR1 components have no sequence homology to other proteins, so the function of GATOR1 at the molecular level is currently unknown. Here we used cryo-electron microscopy to solve structures of GATOR1 and GATOR1-Rag GTPases complexes. GATOR1 adopts an extended architecture with a cavity in the middle; NPRL2 links DEPDC5 and NPRL3, and DEPDC5 contacts the Rag GTPase heterodimer. Biochemical analyses reveal that our GATOR1-Rag GTPases structure is inhibitory, and that at least two binding modes must exist between the Rag GTPases and GATOR1. Direct interaction of DEPDC5 with RAGA inhibits GATOR1-mediated stimulation of GTP hydrolysis by RAGA, whereas weaker interactions between the NPRL2-NPRL3 heterodimer and RAGA execute GAP activity. These data reveal the structure of a component of the nutrient-sensing mTORC1 pathway and a non-canonical interaction between a GAP and its substrate GTPase.

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03/28/18 | Dedicated photoreceptor pathways in Drosophila larvae mediate navigation by processing either spatial or temporal cues.
Humberg T, Bruegger P, Afonso B, Zlatic M, Truman JW, Gershow M, Samuel A, Sprecher SG
Nature Communications. 2018 Mar 28;9(1):1260. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03520-5

To integrate changing environmental cues with high spatial and temporal resolution is critical for animals to orient themselves. Drosophila larvae show an effective motor program to navigate away from light sources. How the larval visual circuit processes light stimuli to control navigational decision remains unknown. The larval visual system is composed of two sensory input channels, Rhodopsin5 (Rh5) and Rhodopsin6 (Rh6) expressing photoreceptors (PRs). We here characterize how spatial and temporal information are used to control navigation. Rh6-PRs are required to perceive temporal changes of light intensity during head casts, while Rh5-PRs are required to control behaviors that allow navigation in response to spatial cues. We characterize how distinct behaviors are modulated and identify parallel acting and converging features of the visual circuit. Functional features of the larval visual circuit highlight the principle of how early in a sensory circuit distinct behaviors may be computed by partly overlapping sensory pathways.

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