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1960 Janelia Publications

Showing 71-80 of 1960 results
03/13/21 | Hippocampal and thalamic afferents form distinct synaptic microcircuits in the mouse frontal cortex.
Kourtney Graham , Nelson Spruston , Erik Bloss
bioRxiv. 2021 Mar 13:

Neural circuits within the frontal cortex support the flexible selection of goal-directed behaviors by integrating input from brain regions associated with sensory, emotional, episodic, and semantic memory functions. From a connectomics perspective, determining how these disparate afferent inputs target their synapses to specific cell types in the frontal cortex may prove crucial in understanding circuit-level information processing. Here, we used monosynaptic retrograde rabies mapping to examine the distribution of afferent neurons targeting four distinct classes of local inhibitory interneurons and four distinct classes of excitatory projection neurons in mouse infralimbic cortex. Interneurons expressing parvalbumin, somatostatin, or vasoactive intestinal peptide received a large proportion of inputs from hippocampal regions, while interneurons expressing neuron-derived neurotrophic factor received a large proportion of inputs from thalamic regions. A more moderate hippocampal-thalamic dichotomy was found among the inputs targeting excitatory neurons that project to the basolateral amygdala, lateral entorhinal cortex, nucleus reuniens of the thalamus, and the periaqueductal gray. Together, these results show a prominent bias among hippocampal and thalamic afferent systems in their targeting to genetically or anatomically defined sets of frontal cortical neurons. Moreover, they suggest the presence of two distinct local microcircuits that control how different inputs govern frontal cortical information processing.

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03/08/21 | Expansion-Assisted Iterative-FISH defines lateral hypothalamus spatio-molecular organization
Yuhan Wang , Mark Eddison , Greg Fleishman , Martin Weigert , Shengjin Xu , Frederick E. Henry , Tim Wang , Andrew L. Lemire , Uwe Schmidt , Hui Yang , Konrad Rokicki , Cristian Goina , Karel Svoboda , Eugene W. Myers , Stephan Saalfeld , Wyatt Korff , Scott M. Sternson , Paul W. Tillberg
bioRxiv. 2021 Mar 8:. doi: 10.1101/2021.03.08.434304

Determining the spatial organization and morphological characteristics of molecularly defined cell types is a major bottleneck for characterizing the architecture underpinning brain function. We developed Expansion-Assisted Iterative Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (EASI-FISH) to survey gene expression in brain tissue, as well as a turnkey computational pipeline to rapidly process large EASI-FISH image datasets. EASI-FISH was optimized for thick brain sections (300 µm) to facilitate reconstruction of spatio-molecular domains that generalize across brains. Using the EASI-FISH pipeline, we investigated the spatial distribution of dozens of molecularly defined cell types in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), a brain region with poorly defined anatomical organization. Mapping cell types in the LHA revealed nine novel spatially and molecularly defined subregions. EASI-FISH also facilitates iterative re-analysis of scRNA-Seq datasets to determine marker-genes that further dissociated spatial and morphological heterogeneity. The EASI-FISH pipeline democratizes mapping molecularly defined cell types, enabling discoveries about brain organization.

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03/03/21 | Actin cables and comet tails organize mitochondrial networks in mitosis.
Moore AS, Coscia SM, Simpson CL, Ortega FE, Wait EC, Heddleston JM, Nirschl JJ, Obara CJ, Guedes-Dias P, Boecker CA, Chew T, Theriot JA, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Holzbaur EL
Nature. 2021 Mar 03;591(7851):659-664. doi: 10.1038/s41586-021-03309-5

Symmetric cell division requires the even partitioning of genetic information and cytoplasmic contents between daughter cells. Whereas the mechanisms coordinating the segregation of the genome are well known, the processes that ensure organelle segregation between daughter cells remain less well understood. Here we identify multiple actin assemblies with distinct but complementary roles in mitochondrial organization and inheritance in mitosis. First, we find a dense meshwork of subcortical actin cables assembled throughout the mitotic cytoplasm. This network scaffolds the endoplasmic reticulum and organizes three-dimensional mitochondrial positioning to ensure the equal segregation of mitochondrial mass at cytokinesis. Second, we identify a dynamic wave of actin filaments reversibly assembling on the surface of mitochondria during mitosis. Mitochondria sampled by this wave are enveloped within actin clouds that can spontaneously break symmetry to form elongated comet tails. Mitochondrial comet tails promote randomly directed bursts of movement that shuffle mitochondrial position within the mother cell to randomize inheritance of healthy and damaged mitochondria between daughter cells. Thus, parallel mechanisms mediated by the actin cytoskeleton ensure both equal and random inheritance of mitochondria in symmetrically dividing cells.

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03/03/21 | Cryo-EM structures of excitatory amino acid transporter 3 visualize coupled substrate, sodium, and proton binding and transport.
Qiu B, Matthies D, Fortea E, Yu Z, Boudker O
Sciences Advances. 2021 Mar 03;7(10):. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abf5814

Human excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (hEAAT3) mediates glutamate uptake in neurons, intestine, and kidney. Here, we report cryo-EM structures of hEAAT3 in several functional states where the transporter is empty, bound to coupled sodium ions only, or fully loaded with three sodium ions, a proton, and the substrate aspartate. The structures suggest that hEAAT3 operates by an elevator mechanism involving three functionally independent subunits. When the substrate-binding site is near the cytoplasm, it has a remarkably low affinity for the substrate, perhaps facilitating its release and allowing the rapid transport turnover. The mechanism of the coupled uptake of the sodium ions and the substrate is conserved across evolutionarily distant families and is augmented by coupling to protons in EAATs. The structures further suggest a mechanism by which a conserved glutamate residue mediates proton symport.

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03/03/21 | Optogenetic Tools for Manipulating Protein Subcellular Localization and Intracellular Signaling at Organelle Contact Sites
Benedetti L
Current Protocols. 2021 Mar 03;1(3):. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/cpz1.71

Intracellular signaling processes are frequently based on direct interactions between proteins and organelles. A fundamental strategy to elucidate the physiological significance of such interactions is to utilize optical dimerization tools. These tools are based on the use of small proteins or domains that interact with each other upon light illumination. Optical dimerizers are particularly suitable for reproducing and interrogating a given protein‐protein interaction and for investigating a protein's intracellular role in a spatially and temporally precise manner. Described in this article are genetic engineering strategies for the generation of modular light‐activatable protein dimerization units and instructions for the preparation of optogenetic applications in mammalian cells. Detailed protocols are provided for the use of light‐tunable switches to regulate protein recruitment to intracellular compartments, induce intracellular organellar membrane tethering, and reconstitute protein function using enhanced Magnets (eMags), a recently engineered optical dimerization system. © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC.

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03/01/21 | Mapping Low-Dimensional Dynamics to High-Dimensional Neural Activity: A Derivation of the Ring Model from the Neural Engineering Framework.
Barak O, Romani S
Neural Computation. 2021 Mar 01;33(3):827-52. doi: 10.1162/neco_a_01361

Empirical estimates of the dimensionality of neural population activity are often much lower than the population size. Similar phenomena are also observed in trained and designed neural network models. These experimental and computational results suggest that mapping low-dimensional dynamics to high-dimensional neural space is a common feature of cortical computation. Despite the ubiquity of this observation, the constraints arising from such mapping are poorly understood. Here we consider a specific example of mapping low-dimensional dynamics to high-dimensional neural activity-the neural engineering framework. We analytically solve the framework for the classic ring model-a neural network encoding a static or dynamic angular variable. Our results provide a complete characterization of the success and failure modes for this model. Based on similarities between this and other frameworks, we speculate that these results could apply to more general scenarios.

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02/27/21 | Acupuncture modulates immunity in sepsis: Toward a science-based protocol.
Pan W, Fan AY, Chen S, Alemi SF
Autonomic Neuroscience. 2021 Feb 27;232:102793. doi: 10.1016/j.autneu.2021.102793

Sepsis is a serious medical condition in which immune dysfunction plays a key role. Previous treatments focused on chemotherapy to control immune function; however, a recognized effective compound or treatment has yet to be developed. Recent advances indicate that a neuromodulation approach with nerve stimulation allows developing a therapeutic strategy to control inflammation and improve organ functions in sepsis. As a quick, non-invasive technique of peripheral nerve stimulation, acupuncture has emerged as a promising therapy to provide significant advantages for immunomodulation in acute inflammation. Acupuncture obtains its regulatory effect by activating the somatic-autonomic-immune reflexes, including the somatic-sympathetic-splenic reflex, the somatic-sympathetic-adrenal reflex, the somatic-vagal-splenic reflex and the somatic-vagal-adrenal reflex, which produces a systemic effect. The peripheral nerve stimulation also induces local reflexes such as the somatic-sympathetic-lung-reflex, which then produces local effects. These mechanisms offer scientific guidance to design acupuncture protocols for immunomodulation and inflammation control, leading to an evidence-based comprehensive therapy recommendation.

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02/25/21 | Protocol for preparation of heterogeneous biological samples for 3D electron microscopy: a case study for insects.
Polilov AA, Makarova AA, Pang S, Shan Xu C, Hess H
Scientific Reports. 2021 Feb 25;11(1):4717. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-83936-0

Modern morphological and structural studies are coming to a new level by incorporating the latest methods of three-dimensional electron microscopy (3D-EM). One of the key problems for the wide usage of these methods is posed by difficulties with sample preparation, since the methods work poorly with heterogeneous (consisting of tissues different in structure and in chemical composition) samples and require expensive equipment and usually much time. We have developed a simple protocol allows preparing heterogeneous biological samples suitable for 3D-EM in a laboratory that has a standard supply of equipment and reagents for electron microscopy. This protocol, combined with focused ion-beam scanning electron microscopy, makes it possible to study 3D ultrastructure of complex biological samples, e.g., whole insect heads, over their entire volume at the cellular and subcellular levels. The protocol provides new opportunities for many areas of study, including connectomics.

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02/23/21 | pyControl: Open source, Python based, hardware and software for controlling behavioural neuroscience experiments
Thomas Akam , Andy Lustig , James Rowland , Sampath K.T. Kapanaiah , Joan Esteve-Agraz , Mariangela Panniello , Cristina Marquez , Michael Kohl , Dennis Kätzel , Rui M. Costa , Mark Walton
bioRxiv. 2021 Feb 23:. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.02.22.432227

Laboratory behavioural tasks are an essential research tool. As questions asked of behaviour and brain activity become more sophisticated, the ability to specify and run richly structured tasks becomes more important. An increasing focus on reproducibility also necessitates accurate communication of task logic to other researchers. To these ends we developed pyControl, a system of open source hardware and software for controlling behavioural experiments comprising; a simple yet flexible Python-based syntax for specifying tasks as extended state machines, hardware modules for building behavioural setups, and a graphical user interface designed for efficiently running high throughput experiments on many setups in parallel, all with extensive online documentation. These tools make it quicker, easier and cheaper to implement rich behavioural tasks at scale. As important, pyControl facilitates communication and reproducibility of behavioural experiments through a highly readable task definition syntax and self-documenting features.

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02/16/21 | Evaluation of multi-color genetically encoded Ca indicators in filamentous fungi.
Kim H, Kim J, Hwangbo A, Akerboom J, Looger LL, Duncan R, Son H, Czymmek KJ, Kang S
Fungal Genetics and Biology. 2021 Feb 16:103540. doi: 10.1016/j.fgb.2021.103540

Genetically encoded Ca indicators (GECIs) enable long-term monitoring of cellular and subcellular dynamics of this second messenger in response to environmental and developmental cues without relying on exogenous dyes. Continued development and optimization in GECIs, combined with advances in gene manipulation, offer new opportunities for investigating the mechanism of Ca signaling in fungi, ranging from documenting Ca signatures under diverse conditions and genetic backgrounds to evaluating how changes in Ca signature impact calcium-binding proteins and subsequent cellular changes. Here, we attempted to express multi-color (green, yellow, blue, cyan, and red) circularly permuted fluorescent protein (FP)-based Ca indicators driven by multiple fungal promoters in Fusarium oxysporum, F. graminearum, and Neurospora crassa. Several variants were successfully expressed, with GCaMP5G driven by the Magnaporthe oryzae ribosomal protein 27 (P) and F. verticillioides elongation factor-1α (P) gene promoters being optimal for F. graminearum and F. oxysporum, respectively. Transformants expressing GCaMP5G were compared with those expressing YC3.60, a ratiometric Cameleon Ca indicator. Wild-type and three Ca signaling mutants of F. graminearum expressing GCaMP5G exhibited improved signal-to-noise and increased temporal and spatial resolution and are also more amenable to studies involving multiple FPs compared to strains expressing YC3.60.

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