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2335 Janelia Publications

Showing 71-80 of 2335 results
05/30/23 | Mechanisms of memory storage and retrieval in hippocampal area CA3
Yiding Li , John J. Briguglio , Sandro Romani , Jeffrey C. Magee
bioRxiv. 2023 May 30:. doi: 10.1101/2023.05.30.542781

Hippocampal area CA3 is thought to play a central role in memory formation and retrieval. Although various network mechanisms have been hypothesized to mediate these computations, direct evidence is lacking. Using intracellular membrane potential recordings from CA3 neurons and optogenetic manipulations in behaving mice we found that place field activity is produced by a symmetric form of Behavioral Timescale Synaptic Plasticity (BTSP) at recurrent synaptic connections among CA3 principal neurons but not at synapses from the dentate gyrus (DG). Additional manipulations revealed that excitatory input from the entorhinal cortex (EC) but not DG was required to update place cell activity based on the animal’s movement. These data were captured by a computational model that used BTSP and an external updating input to produce attractor dynamics under online learning conditions. Additional theoretical results demonstrate the enhanced memory storage capacity of such networks, particularly in the face of correlated input patterns. The evidence sheds light on the cellular and circuit mechanisms of learning and memory formation in the hippocampus.

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05/29/23 | Mapping memories: pulse-chase labeling reveals AMPA receptor dynamics during memory formation.
Doyeon Kim , Pojeong Park , Xiuyuan Li , J. David Wong Campos , He Tian , Eric M. Moult , Jonathan B. Grimm , Luke Lavis , Adam E. Cohen
bioRxiv. 2023 May 29:. doi: 10.1101/2023.05.26.541296

A tool to map changes in synaptic strength during a defined time window could provide powerful insights into the mechanisms governing learning and memory. We developed a technique, Extracellular Protein Surface Labeling in Neurons (EPSILON), to map α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) insertion in vivo by pulse-chase labeling of surface AMPARs with membrane-impermeable dyes. This approach allows for single-synapse resolution maps of plasticity in genetically targeted neurons during memory formation. We investigated the relationship between synapse-level and cell-level memory encodings by mapping synaptic plasticity and cFos expression in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells upon contextual fear conditioning (CFC). We observed a strong correlation between synaptic plasticity and cFos expression, suggesting a synaptic mechanism for the association of cFos expression with memory engrams. The EPSILON technique is a useful tool for mapping synaptic plasticity and may be extended to investigate trafficking of other transmembrane proteins.

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05/29/23 | Tissue-specific transcriptome analyses in Drosophila provide novel insights into the mode of action of the insecticide spinosad and the function of its target, nAChRα6.
Martelli F, Ravenscroft TA, Hutchison W, Batterham P
Pest Management Science. 2023 May 29:. doi: 10.1002/ps.7585

BACKGROUND: The insecticides spinosad and imidacloprid are neurotoxins with distinct modes of action. Both target nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), albeit different subunits. Spinosad is an allosteric modulator, that upon binding initiates endocytosis of its target, nAChRα6. Imidacloprid binding triggers excessive neuronal ion influx. Despite these differences, low-dose effects converge downstream in the precipitation of oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.

RESULTS: Using RNA-Seq, we compared the transcriptional signatures of spinosad and imidacloprid, at low-dose exposures. Both insecticides cause upregulation of Glutathione S-transferase and Cytochrome P450 genes in the brain and downregulation in the fat body, whereas reduced expression of immune-related genes is observed in both tissues. Spinosad shows unique impacts on genes involved in lysosomal function, protein folding, and reproduction. Co-expression analyses revealed little to no correlation between genes affected by spinosad and nAChRα6 expressing neurons, but a positive correlation with glial cell markers. We also detected and experimentally confirmed nAChRα6 expression in fat body cells and male germline cells. This led us to uncover lysosomal dysfunction in the fat body following spinosad exposure, and a fitness cost in spinosad-resistant (nAChRα6 null) males - oxidative stress in testes, and reduced fertility.

CONCLUSION: Spinosad and imidacloprid share transcriptional perturbations in immunity-, energy homeostasis-, and oxidative stress-related genes. Low doses of other neurotoxic insecticides should be investigated for similar impacts. While target-site spinosad resistance mutation has evolved in the field, this may have a fitness cost. Our findings demonstrate the power of tissue-specific transcriptomics approach and the use of single-cell transcriptome data. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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05/26/23 | Voltage dynamics of dendritic integration and back-propagation in vivo
J. David Wong-Campos , Pojeong Park , Hunter Davis , Yitong Qi , He Tian , Daniel G. Itkis , Doyeon Kim , Sarah E. Plutkis , Luke Lavis , Adam E. Cohen
bioRxiv. 2023 May 26:. doi: 10.1101/2023.05.25.542363

Neurons integrate synaptic inputs within their dendrites and produce spiking outputs, which then propagate down the axon and back into the dendrites where they contribute to plasticity. Mapping the voltage dynamics in dendritic arbors of live animals is crucial for understanding neuronal computation and plasticity rules. Here we combine patterned channelrhodopsin activation with dual-plane structured illumination voltage imaging, for simultaneous perturbation and monitoring of dendritic and somatic voltage in Layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in anesthetized and awake mice. We examined the integration of synaptic inputs and compared the dynamics of optogenetically evoked, spontaneous, and sensory-evoked back-propagating action potentials (bAPs). Our measurements revealed a broadly shared membrane voltage throughout the dendritic arbor, and few signatures of electrical compartmentalization among synaptic inputs. However, we observed spike rate acceleration-dependent propagation of bAPs into distal dendrites. We propose that this dendritic filtering of bAPs may play a critical role in activity-dependent plasticity.

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05/22/23 | Extracellular matrix assembly stress initiates Drosophila central nervous system morphogenesis.
Serna-Morales E, Sánchez-Sánchez BJ, Marcotti S, Nichols A, Bhargava A, Dragu A, Hirvonen LM, Diaz-de-la-Loza M, Mink M, Cox S, Rayfield E, Lee RM, Hobson CM, Chew T, Stramer BM
Developmental Cell. 2023 May 22;58(10):825-835.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2023.03.019

Forces controlling tissue morphogenesis are attributed to cellular-driven activities, and any role for extracellular matrix (ECM) is assumed to be passive. However, all polymer networks, including ECM, can develop autonomous stresses during their assembly. Here, we examine the morphogenetic function of an ECM before reaching homeostatic equilibrium by analyzing de novo ECM assembly during Drosophila ventral nerve cord (VNC) condensation. Asymmetric VNC shortening and a rapid decrease in surface area correlate with the exponential assembly of collagen IV (Col4) surrounding the tissue. Concomitantly, a transient developmentally induced Col4 gradient leads to coherent long-range flow of ECM, which equilibrates the Col4 network. Finite element analysis and perturbation of Col4 network formation through the generation of dominant Col4 mutations that affect assembly reveal that VNC morphodynamics is partially driven by a sudden increase in ECM-driven surface tension. These data suggest that ECM assembly stress and associated network instabilities can actively participate in tissue morphogenesis.

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05/18/23 | Autophagy receptor NDP52 alters DNA conformation to modulate RNA polymerase II transcription.
Dos Santos Á, Rollins DE, Hari-Gupta Y, McArthur H, Du M, Ru SY, Pidlisna K, Stranger A, Lorgat F, Lambert D, Brown I, Howland K, Aaron J, Wang L, Ellis PJ, Chew T, Martin-Fernandez M, Pyne AL, Toseland CP
Nature Communications. 2023 May 18;14(1):2855. doi: 10.1038/s41467-023-38572-9

NDP52 is an autophagy receptor involved in the recognition and degradation of invading pathogens and damaged organelles. Although NDP52 was first identified in the nucleus and is expressed throughout the cell, to date, there is no clear nuclear functions for NDP52. Here, we use a multidisciplinary approach to characterise the biochemical properties and nuclear roles of NDP52. We find that NDP52 clusters with RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII) at transcription initiation sites and that its overexpression promotes the formation of additional transcriptional clusters. We also show that depletion of NDP52 impacts overall gene expression levels in two model mammalian cells, and that transcription inhibition affects the spatial organisation and molecular dynamics of NDP52 in the nucleus. This directly links NDP52 to a role in RNAPII-dependent transcription. Furthermore, we also show that NDP52 binds specifically and with high affinity to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and that this interaction leads to changes in DNA structure in vitro. This, together with our proteomics data indicating enrichment for interactions with nucleosome remodelling proteins and DNA structure regulators, suggests a possible function for NDP52 in chromatin regulation. Overall, here we uncover nuclear roles for NDP52 in gene expression and DNA structure regulation.

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Svoboda LabDarshan Lab
05/18/23 | Distributing task-related neural activity across a cortical network through task-independent connections.
Kim CM, Finkelstein A, Chow CC, Svoboda K, Darshan R
Nature Communications. 2023 May 18;14(1):2851. doi: 10.1038/s41467-023-38529-y

Task-related neural activity is widespread across populations of neurons during goal-directed behaviors. However, little is known about the synaptic reorganization and circuit mechanisms that lead to broad activity changes. Here we trained a subset of neurons in a spiking network with strong synaptic interactions to reproduce the activity of neurons in the motor cortex during a decision-making task. Task-related activity, resembling the neural data, emerged across the network, even in the untrained neurons. Analysis of trained networks showed that strong untrained synapses, which were independent of the task and determined the dynamical state of the network, mediated the spread of task-related activity. Optogenetic perturbations suggest that the motor cortex is strongly-coupled, supporting the applicability of the mechanism to cortical networks. Our results reveal a cortical mechanism that facilitates distributed representations of task-variables by spreading the activity from a subset of plastic neurons to the entire network through task-independent strong synapses.

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05/18/23 | Nanoparticle-based targeting of microglia improves the neural regeneration enhancing effects of immunosuppression in the zebrafish retina.
Emmerich K, White DT, Kambhampati SP, Casado GL, Fu T, Chunawala Z, Sahoo A, Nimmagadda S, Krishnan N, Saxena MT, Walker SL, Betzig E, Kannan RM, Mumm JS
Communications Biology. 2023 May 18;6(1):534. doi: 10.1038/s42003-023-04898-9

Retinal Müller glia function as injury-induced stem-like cells in zebrafish but not mammals. However, insights gleaned from zebrafish have been applied to stimulate nascent regenerative responses in the mammalian retina. For instance, microglia/macrophages regulate Müller glia stem cell activity in the chick, zebrafish, and mouse. We previously showed that post-injury immunosuppression by the glucocorticoid dexamethasone accelerated retinal regeneration kinetics in zebrafish. Similarly, microglia ablation enhances regenerative outcomes in the mouse retina. Targeted immunomodulation of microglia reactivity may therefore enhance the regenerative potential of Müller glia for therapeutic purposes. Here, we investigated potential mechanisms by which post-injury dexamethasone accelerates retinal regeneration kinetics, and the effects of dendrimer-based targeting of dexamethasone to reactive microglia. Intravital time-lapse imaging revealed that post-injury dexamethasone inhibited microglia reactivity. The dendrimer-conjugated formulation: (1) decreased dexamethasone-associated systemic toxicity, (2) targeted dexamethasone to reactive microglia, and (3) improved the regeneration enhancing effects of immunosuppression by increasing stem/progenitor proliferation rates. Lastly, we show that the gene rnf2 is required for the enhanced regeneration effect of D-Dex. These data support the use of dendrimer-based targeting of reactive immune cells to reduce toxicity and enhance the regeneration promoting effects of immunosuppressants in the retina.

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05/17/23 | Sensitivity optimization of a rhodopsin-based fluorescent voltage indicator
Abdelfattah AS, Zheng J, Singh A, Huang Y, Reep D, Tsegaye G, Tsang A, Arthur BJ, Rehorova M, Olson CV, Shuai Y, Zhang L, Fu T, Milkie DE, Moya MV, Weber TD, Lemire AL, Baker CA, Falco N, Zheng Q, Grimm JB, Yip MC, Walpita D, Chase M, Campagnola L, Murphy GJ, Wong AM, Forest CR, Mertz J, Economo MN, Turner GC, Koyama M, Lin B, Betzig E, Novak O, Lavis LD, Svoboda K, Korff W, Chen T, Schreiter ER, Hasseman JP, Kolb I
Neuron. 2023 May 17;111(10):1547-1563. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2023.03.009

The ability to optically image cellular transmembrane voltages at millisecond-timescale resolutions can offer unprecedented insight into the function of living brains in behaving animals. Here, we present a point mutation that increases the sensitivity of Ace2 opsin-based voltage indicators. We use the mutation to develop Voltron2, an improved chemigeneic voltage indicator that has a 65% higher sensitivity to single APs and 3-fold higher sensitivity to subthreshold potentials than Voltron. Voltron2 retained the sub-millisecond kinetics and photostability of its predecessor, although with lower baseline fluorescence. In multiple in vitro and in vivo comparisons with its predecessor across multiple species, we found Voltron2 to be more sensitive to APs and subthreshold fluctuations. Finally, we used Voltron2 to study and evaluate the possible mechanisms of interneuron synchronization in the mouse hippocampus. Overall, we have discovered a generalizable mutation that significantly increases the sensitivity of Ace2 rhodopsin-based sensors, improving their voltage reporting capability.

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05/08/23 | Lipid flipping in the omega-3 fatty-acid transporter.
Nguyen C, Lei H, Lai LT, Gallenito MJ, Mu X, Matthies D, Gonen T
Nature Communications. 2023 May 08;14(1):2571. doi: 10.1038/s41467-023-37702-7

Mfsd2a is the transporter for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 fatty acid, across the blood brain barrier (BBB). Defects in Mfsd2a are linked to ailments from behavioral and motor dysfunctions to microcephaly. Mfsd2a transports long-chain unsaturated fatty-acids, including DHA and α-linolenic acid (ALA), that are attached to the zwitterionic lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) headgroup. Even with the recently determined structures of Mfsd2a, the molecular details of how this transporter performs the energetically unfavorable task of translocating and flipping lysolipids across the lipid bilayer remains unclear. Here, we report five single-particle cryo-EM structures of Danio rerio Mfsd2a (drMfsd2a): in the inward-open conformation in the ligand-free state and displaying lipid-like densities modeled as ALA-LPC at four distinct positions. These Mfsd2a snapshots detail the flipping mechanism for lipid-LPC from outer to inner membrane leaflet and release for membrane integration on the cytoplasmic side. These results also map Mfsd2a mutants that disrupt lipid-LPC transport and are associated with disease.

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