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1457 Janelia Publications

Showing 71-80 of 1457 results
Cardona LabFetter Lab
08/02/18 | MDN brain descending neurons coordinately activate backward and inhibit forward locomotion.
Carreira-Rosario A, Zarin AA, Clark MQ, Manning L, Fetter RD, Cardona A, Doe CQ
eLife. 2018 Aug 02;7:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.38554

Command-like descending neurons can induce many behaviors, such as backward locomotion, escape, feeding, courtship, egg-laying, or grooming (we define 'command-like neuron' as a neuron whose activation elicits or 'commands' a specific behavior). In most animals it remains unknown how neural circuits switch between antagonistic behaviors: via top-down activation/inhibition of antagonistic circuits or via reciprocal inhibition between antagonistic circuits. Here we use genetic screens, intersectional genetics, circuit reconstruction by electron microscopy, and functional optogenetics to identify a bilateral pair of larval 'mooncrawler descending neurons' (MDNs) with command-like ability to coordinately induce backward locomotion and block forward locomotion; the former by stimulating a backward-active premotor neuron, and the latter by disynaptic inhibition of a forward-specific premotor neuron. In contrast, direct monosynaptic reciprocal inhibition between forward and backward circuits was not observed. Thus, MDNs coordinate a transition between antagonistic larval locomotor behaviors. Interestingly, larval MDNs persist into adulthood, where they can trigger backward walking. Thus, MDNs induce backward locomotion in both limbless and limbed animals.

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08/01/18 | Interacting organelles.
Cohen S, Valm AM, Lippincott-Schwartz J
Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 2018 Aug;53:84-91. doi: 10.1016/

Eukaryotic cells are organized into membrane-bound organelles. These organelles communicate with one another through vesicular trafficking pathways and membrane contact sites (MCSs). MCSs are sites of close apposition between two or more organelles that play diverse roles in the exchange of metabolites, lipids and proteins. Organelle interactions at MCSs also are important for organelle division and biogenesis. For example, the division of several organelles, including mitochondria and endosomes, seem to be regulated by contacts with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Moreover, the biogenesis of autophagosomes and peroxisomes involves contributions from the ER and multiple other cellular compartments. Thus, organelle-organelle interactions allow cells to alter the shape and activities of their membrane-bound compartments, allowing them to cope with different developmental and environmental conditions.

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08/01/18 | Optical alignment device for two-photon microscopy.
Galiñanes GL, Marchand PJ, Turcotte R, Pellat S, Ji N, Huber D
Biomedical Optics Express. 2018 Aug 1;9(8):3624-9. doi: 10.1364/BOE.9.003624

Two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy has revolutionized our understanding of brain structure and function through the high resolution and large penetration depth it offers. Investigating neural structures in vivo requires gaining optical access to the brain, which is typically achieved by replacing a part of the skull with one or several layers of cover glass windows. To compensate for the spherical aberrations caused by the presence of these layers of glass, collar-correction objectives are typically used. However, the efficiency of this correction has been shown to depend significantly on the tilt angle between the glass window surface and the optical axis of the imaging system. Here, we first expand these observations and characterize the effect of the tilt angle on the collected fluorescence signal with thicker windows (double cover slide) and compare these results with an objective devoid of collar-correction. Second, we present a simple optical alignment device designed to rapidly minimize the tilt angle in vivo and align the optical axis of the microscope perpendicularly to the glass window to an angle below 0.25°, thereby significantly improving the imaging quality. Finally, we describe a tilt-correction procedure for users in an in vivo setting, enabling the accurate alignment with a resolution of <0.2° in only few iterations.

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07/30/18 | The actin cytoskeletal architecture of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells suppresses invasion.
Padilla-Rodriguez M, Parker SS, Adams DG, Westerling T, Puleo JI, Watson AW, Hill SM, Noon M, Gaudin R, Aaron J, Tong D, Roe DJ, Knudsen B, Mouneimne G
Nature Communications. 2018 Jul 30;9(1):2980. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-05367-2

Estrogen promotes growth of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast tumors. However, epidemiological studies examining the prognostic characteristics of breast cancer in postmenopausal women receiving hormone replacement therapy reveal a significant decrease in tumor dissemination, suggesting that estrogen has potential protective effects against cancer cell invasion. Here, we show that estrogen suppresses invasion of ER+ breast cancer cells by increasing transcription of the Ena/VASP protein, EVL, which promotes the generation of suppressive cortical actin bundles that inhibit motility dynamics, and is crucial for the ER-mediated suppression of invasion in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, despite its benefits in suppressing tumor growth, anti-estrogenic endocrine therapy decreases EVL expression and increases local invasion in patients. Our results highlight the dichotomous effects of estrogen on tumor progression and suggest that, in contrast to its established role in promoting growth of ER+ tumors, estrogen has a significant role in suppressing invasion through actin cytoskeletal remodeling.

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07/25/18 | An unbiased template of the Drosophila brain and ventral nerve cord.
Bogovic JA, Otsuna H, Heinrich L, Ito M, Jeter J, Meissner GW, Nern A, Colonell J, Malkesman O, Saalfeld S
bioRxiv. 2018 Jul 25:. doi: 10.1101/376384

The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an important model organism for neuroscience with a wide array of genetic tools that enable the mapping of individuals neurons and neural subtypes. Brain templates are essential for comparative biological studies because they enable analyzing many individuals in a common reference space. Several central brain templates exist for Drosophila, but every one is either biased, uses sub-optimal tissue preparation, is imaged at low resolution, or does not account for artifacts. No publicly available Drosophila ventral nerve cord template currently exists. In this work, we created high-resolution templates of the Drosophila brain and ventral nerve cord using the best-available technologies for imaging, artifact correction, stitching, and template construction using groupwise registration. We evaluated our central brain template against the four most competitive, publicly available brain templates and demonstrate that ours enables more accurate registration with fewer local deformations in shorter time.

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07/24/18 | The ESCRT-III protein CHMP1A mediates secretion of sonic hedgehog on a distinctive subtype of extracellular vesicles.
Coulter ME, Dorobantu CM, Lodewijk GA, Delalande F, Cianferani S, Ganesh VS, Smith RS, Lim ET, Xu CS, Pang S, Wong ET, Lidov HG, Calicchio ML, Yang E, Gonzalez DM, Schlaeger TM, Mochida GH, Hess H, Lee WA, Lehtinen MK, Kirchhausen T, Haussler D, Jacobs FM, Gaudin R, Walsh CA
Cell Reports. 2018 Jul 24;24(4):973-986.e8. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.06.100

Endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) complex proteins regulate biogenesis and release of extracellular vesicles (EVs), which enable cell-to-cell communication in the nervous system essential for development and adult function. We recently showed human loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in ESCRT-III member CHMP1A cause autosomal recessive microcephaly with pontocerebellar hypoplasia, but its mechanism was unclear. Here, we show Chmp1a is required for progenitor proliferation in mouse cortex and cerebellum and progenitor maintenance in human cerebral organoids. In Chmp1a null mice, this defect is associated with impaired sonic hedgehog (Shh) secretion and intraluminal vesicle (ILV) formation in multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Furthermore, we show CHMP1A is important for release of an EV subtype that contains AXL, RAB18, and TMED10 (ART) and SHH. Our findings show CHMP1A loss impairs secretion of SHH on ART-EVs, providing molecular mechanistic insights into the role of ESCRT proteins and EVs in the brain.

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07/23/18 | Cortical column and whole brain imaging of neural circuits with molecular contrast and nanoscale resolution.
Gao R, Asano SM, Upadhyayula S, Pisarev I, Milkie DE, Liu T, Singh V, Graves AR, Huynh GH, Zhao Y, Bogovic JA, Colonell J, Ott CM, Zugates CT, Tappan S, Rodriguez A, Mosaliganti KR, Megason SG, Lippincott-Schwartz J, et al
bioRxiv. 2018 Jul 23:. doi: 10.1101/374140

Optical and electron microscopy have made tremendous inroads in understanding the complexity of the brain, but the former offers insufficient resolution to reveal subcellular details and the latter lacks the throughput and molecular contrast to visualize specific molecular constituents over mm-scale or larger dimensions. We combined expansion microscopy and lattice light sheet microscopy to image the nanoscale spatial relationships between proteins across the thickness of the mouse cortex or the entire Drosophila brain, including synaptic proteins at dendritic spines, myelination along axons, and presynaptic densities at dopaminergic neurons in every fly neuropil domain. The technology should enable statistically rich, large scale studies of neural development, sexual dimorphism, degree of stereotypy, and structural correlations to behavior or neural activity, all with molecular contrast.

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07/23/18 | Insights from Biology: low power circuits in the fruit fly.
Scheffer LK
International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design. 2018 Jul 23-25:

Fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) are small insects, with correspondingly small power budgets. Despite this, they perform sophisticated neural computations in real time. Careful study of these insects is revealing how some of these circuits work. Insights from these systems might be helpful in designing other low power circuits.

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07/13/18 | Cryo-EM structure of the polycystin 2-l1 ion channel.
Hulse RE, Li Z, Huang RK, Zhang J, Clapham DE
eLife. 2018 Jul 13;7:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.36931

We report the near atomic resolution (3.3 Å) of the human polycystic kidney disease 2-like 1 (polycystin 2-l1) ion channel. Encoded by PKD2L1, polycystin 2-l1 is a calcium and monovalent cation-permeant ion channel in primary cilia and plasma membranes. The related primary cilium-specific polycystin-2 protein, encoded by PKD2, shares a high degree of sequence similarity, yet has distinct permeability characteristics. Here we show that these differences are reflected in the architecture of polycystin 2-l1.

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07/13/18 | Fluorogenic structure activity library pinpoints molecular variations in substrate specificity of structurally homologous esterases.
White A, Koelper A, Russell A, Larsen EM, Kim C, Lavis LD, Hoops GC, Johnson RJ
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2018 Jul 13;293(36):13851-62. doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA118.003972

Cellular esterases catalyze many essential biological functions by performing hydrolysis reactions on diverse substrates. The promiscuity of esterases complicates assignment of their substrate preferences and biological functions. To identify universal factors controlling esterase substrate recognition, we designed a 32-member structure-activity relationship (SAR) library of fluorogenic ester substrates and used this library to systematically interrogate esterase preference for chain length, branching patterns, and polarity to differentiate common classes of esterase substrates. Two structurally homologous bacterial esterases were screened against this library, refining their previously broad overlapping substrate specificity. esterase ybfF displayed a preference for γ-position thioethers and ethers, whereas Rv0045c from displayed a preference for branched substrates with and without thioethers. We determined that this substrate differentiation was partially controlled by individual substrate selectivity residues Tyr119 in ybfF and His187 in Rv0045c; reciprocal substitution of these residues shifted each esterase's substrate preference. This work demonstrates that the selectivity of esterases is tuned based on transition state stabilization, identifies thioethers as an underutilized functional group for esterase substrates, and provides a rapid method for differentiating structural isozymes. This SAR library could have multi-faceted future applications including in vivo imaging, biocatalyst screening, molecular fingerprinting, and inhibitor design.

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