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1702 Janelia Publications

Showing 71-80 of 1702 results
09/23/19 | Single-cell reconstruction of emerging population activity in an entire developing circuit.
Wan Y, Wei Z, Looger LL, Koyama M, Druckmann S, Keller PJ
Cell. 2019 Sep 23;179(2):. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.08.039

Animal survival requires a functioning nervous system to develop during embryogenesis. Newborn neurons must assemble into circuits producing activity patterns capable of instructing behaviors. Elucidating how this process is coordinated requires new methods that follow maturation and activity of all cells across a developing circuit. We present an imaging method for comprehensively tracking neuron lineages, movements, molecular identities, and activity in the entire developing zebrafish spinal cord, from neurogenesis until the emergence of patterned activity instructing the earliest spontaneous motor behavior. We found that motoneurons are active first and form local patterned ensembles with neighboring neurons. These ensembles merge, synchronize globally after reaching a threshold size, and finally recruit commissural interneurons to orchestrate the left-right alternating patterns important for locomotion in vertebrates. Individual neurons undergo functional maturation stereotypically based on their birth time and anatomical origin. Our study provides a general strategy for reconstructing how functioning circuits emerge during embryogenesis.

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09/19/19 | Reconstruction of 1,000 projection neurons reveals new cell types and organization of long-range connectivity in the mouse brain.
Winnubst J, Bas E, Ferreira TA, Wu Z, Economo MN, Edson P, Arthur BJ, Bruns C, Rokicki K, Schauder D, Olbris DJ, Murphy SD, Ackerman DG, Arshadi C, Baldwin P, Blake R, Elsayed A, Hasan M, Ramirez D, Dos Santos B, Weldon M, Zafar A, Dudman JT, Gerfen CR, Hantman AW, Korff W, Sternson SM, Spruston N, Svoboda K, Chandrashekar J
Cell. 2019 Sep 19;179(1):268-81. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.07.042

Neuronal cell types are the nodes of neural circuits that determine the flow of information within the brain. Neuronal morphology, especially the shape of the axonal arbor, provides an essential descriptor of cell type and reveals how individual neurons route their output across the brain. Despite the importance of morphology, few projection neurons in the mouse brain have been reconstructed in their entirety. Here we present a robust and efficient platform for imaging and reconstructing complete neuronal morphologies, including axonal arbors that span substantial portions of the brain. We used this platform to reconstruct more than 1,000 projection neurons in the motor cortex, thalamus, subiculum, and hypothalamus. Together, the reconstructed neurons constitute more than 85 meters of axonal length and are available in a searchable online database. Axonal shapes revealed previously unknown subtypes of projection neurons and suggest organizational principles of long-range connectivity.

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09/16/19 | A repeated molecular architecture across thalamic pathways.
Phillips JW, Schulmann A, Hara E, Winnubst J, Liu C, Valakh V, Wang L, Shields BC, Korff W, Chandrashekar J, Lemire AL, Mensh B, Dudman JT, Nelson SB, Hantman AW
Nature Neuroscience. 2019 Sep 16;22(11):1925-35. doi: 10.1038/s41593-019-0483-3

The thalamus is the central communication hub of the forebrain and provides the cerebral cortex with inputs from sensory organs, subcortical systems and the cortex itself. Multiple thalamic regions send convergent information to each cortical region, but the organizational logic of thalamic projections has remained elusive. Through comprehensive transcriptional analyses of retrogradely labeled thalamic neurons in adult mice, we identify three major profiles of thalamic pathways. These profiles exist along a continuum that is repeated across all major projection systems, such as those for vision, motor control and cognition. The largest component of gene expression variation in the mouse thalamus is topographically organized, with features conserved in humans. Transcriptional differences between these thalamic neuronal identities are tied to cellular features that are critical for function, such as axonal morphology and membrane properties. Molecular profiling therefore reveals covariation in the properties of thalamic pathways serving all major input modalities and output targets, thus establishing a molecular framework for understanding the thalamus.

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09/19/19 | RNA granules hitchhike on lysosomes for long-distance transport, Using annexin A11 as a molecular tether.
Liao Y, Fernandopulle MS, Wang G, Choi H, Hao L, Drerup CM, Patel R, Qamar S, Nixon-Abell J, Shen Y, Meadows W, Vendruscolo M, Knowles TP, Nelson M, Czekalska MA, Musteikyte G, Gachechiladze MA, Stephens CA, Pasolli HA, Forrest LR, St George-Hyslop P, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Ward ME
Cell. 2019 Sep 19;179(1):147-164.e20. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.08.050

Long-distance RNA transport enables local protein synthesis at metabolically-active sites distant from the nucleus. This process ensures an appropriate spatial organization of proteins, vital to polarized cells such as neurons. Here, we present a mechanism for RNA transport in which RNA granules "hitchhike" on moving lysosomes. In vitro biophysical modeling, live-cell microscopy, and unbiased proximity labeling proteomics reveal that annexin A11 (ANXA11), an RNA granule-associated phosphoinositide-binding protein, acts as a molecular tether between RNA granules and lysosomes. ANXA11 possesses an N-terminal low complexity domain, facilitating its phase separation into membraneless RNA granules, and a C-terminal membrane binding domain, enabling interactions with lysosomes. RNA granule transport requires ANXA11, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-associated mutations in ANXA11 impair RNA granule transport by disrupting their interactions with lysosomes. Thus, ANXA11 mediates neuronal RNA transport by tethering RNA granules to actively-transported lysosomes, performing a critical cellular function that is disrupted in ALS.

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09/04/19 | Isomeric tuning yields bright and targetable red Ca indicators.
Deo C, Sheu S, Seo J, Clapham DE, Lavis LD
Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2019 Sep 04;141(35):13734-13738. doi: 10.1021/jacs.9b06092

Targeting small-molecule fluorescent indicators using genetically encoded protein tags yields new hybrid sensors for biological imaging. Optimization of such systems requires redesign of the synthetic indicator to allow cell-specific targeting without compromising the photophysical properties or cellular performance of the small-molecule probe. We developed a bright and sensitive Ca indicator by systematically exploring the relative configuration of dye and chelator, which can be targeted using the HaloTag self-labeling tag system. Our "isomeric tuning" approach is generalizable, yielding a far-red targetable indicator to visualize Ca fluxes in the primary cilium.

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09/02/19 | Idiosyncratic choice bias in decision tasks naturally emerges from neuronal network dynamics.
Lebovich L, Darshan R, Lavi Y, Hansel D, Loewenstein Y
Nature Human Behavior. 2019 Sep 02;3(11):1190-1202. doi: 10.1101/284877

Idiosyncratic tendency to choose one alternative over others in the absence of an identified reason, is a common observation in two-alternative forced-choice experiments. It is tempting to account for it as resulting from the (unknown) participant-specific history and thus treat it as a measurement noise. Indeed, idiosyncratic choice biases are typically considered as nuisance. Care is taken to account for them by adding an ad-hoc bias parameter or by counterbalancing the choices to average them out. Here we quantify idiosyncratic choice biases in a perceptual discrimination task and a motor task. We report substantial and significant biases in both cases. Then, we present theoretical evidence that even in idealized experiments, in which the settings are symmetric, idiosyncratic choice bias is expected to emerge from the dynamics of competing neuronal networks. We thus argue that idiosyncratic choice bias reflects the microscopic dynamics of choice and therefore is virtually inevitable in any comparison or decision task.

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09/02/19 | Software for lattice light-sheet imaging of FRET biosensors, illustrated with a new Rap1 biosensor.
O’Shaughnessy EC, Stone OJ, LaFosse PK, Azoitei ML, Tsygankov D, Heddleston JM, Legant WR, Wittchen ES, Burridge K, Elston TC, Betzig E, Chew T, Adalsteinsson D, Hahn KM
The Journal of Cell Biology. 2019 Sep 2;218(9):3153-3160. doi: 10.1083/jcb.201903019

Lattice light-sheet microscopy (LLSM) is valuable for its combination of reduced photobleaching and outstanding spatiotemporal resolution in 3D. Using LLSM to image biosensors in living cells could provide unprecedented visualization of rapid, localized changes in protein conformation or posttranslational modification. However, computational manipulations required for biosensor imaging with LLSM are challenging for many software packages. The calculations require processing large amounts of data even for simple changes such as reorientation of cell renderings or testing the effects of user-selectable settings, and lattice imaging poses unique challenges in thresholding and ratio imaging. We describe here a new software package, named ImageTank, that is specifically designed for practical imaging of biosensors using LLSM. To demonstrate its capabilities, we use a new biosensor to study the rapid 3D dynamics of the small GTPase Rap1 in vesicles and cell protrusions.

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09/01/19 | A neuron-glia Co-culture system for studying intercellular lipid transport.
Ioannou MS, Liu Z, Lippincott-Schwartz J
Curr Protoc Cell Biol. 2019 Sep 01;84(1):e95. doi: 10.1002/cpcb.95

Neurons and glia operate in a highly coordinated fashion in the brain. Although glial cells have long been known to supply lipids to neurons via lipoprotein particles, new evidence reveals that lipid transport between neurons and glia is bidirectional. Here, we describe a co-culture system to study transfer of lipids and lipid-associated proteins from neurons to glia. The assay entails culturing neurons and glia on separate coverslips, pulsing the neurons with fluorescently labeled fatty acids, and then incubating the coverslips together. As astrocytes internalize and store neuron-derived fatty acids in lipid droplets, analyzing the number, size, and fluorescence intensity of lipid droplets containing the fluorescent fatty acids provides an easy and quantifiable measure of fatty acid transport. © 2019 The Authors.

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09/01/19 | Cellular localization of tolyporphins, unusual tetrapyrroles, in a microbial photosynthetic community determined using hyperspectral confocal fluorescence microscopy.
Barnhart-Dailey M, Zhang Y, Zhang R, Anthony SM, Aaron JS, Miller ES, Lindsey JS, Timlin JA
Photosynthesis Research. 2019 Sep 1;141(3):259-71. doi: 10.1007/s11120-019-00625-w

The cyanobacterial culture HT-58-2, composed of a filamentous cyanobacterium and accompanying community bacteria, produces chlorophyll a as well as the tetrapyrrole macrocycles known as tolyporphins. Almost all known tolyporphins (A-M except K) contain a dioxobacteriochlorin chromophore and exhibit an absorption spectrum somewhat similar to that of chlorophyll a. Here, hyperspectral confocal fluorescence microscopy was employed to noninvasively probe the locale of tolyporphins within live cells under various growth conditions (media, illumination, culture age). Cultures grown in nitrate-depleted media (BG-11 vs. nitrate-rich, BG-11) are known to increase the production of tolyporphins by orders of magnitude (rivaling that of chlorophyll a) over a period of 30-45 days. Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) was applied to an image set containing images from each condition to obtain pure component spectra of the endogenous pigments. The relative abundances of these components were then calculated for individual pixels in each image in the entire set, and 3D-volume renderings were obtained. At 30 days in media with or without nitrate, the chlorophyll a and phycobilisomes (combined phycocyanin and phycobilin components) co-localize in the filament outer cytoplasmic region. Tolyporphins localize in a distinct peripheral pattern in cells grown in BG-11 versus a diffuse pattern (mimicking the chlorophyll a localization) upon growth in BG-11. In BG-11, distinct puncta of tolyporphins were commonly found at the septa between cells and at the end of filaments. This work quantifies the relative abundance and envelope localization of tolyporphins in single cells, and illustrates the ability to identify novel tetrapyrroles in the presence of chlorophyll a in a photosynthetic microorganism within a non-axenic culture.

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09/01/19 | BigStitcher: reconstructing high-resolution image datasets of cleared and expanded samples.
Hörl D, Rojas Rusak F, Preusser F, Tillberg P, Randel N, Chhetri RK, Cardona A, Keller PJ, Harz H, Leonhardt H, Treier M, Preibisch S
Nature Methods. 2019 Sep;16(9):870-74. doi: 10.1038/s41592-019-0501-0

Light-sheet imaging of cleared and expanded samples creates terabyte-sized datasets that consist of many unaligned three-dimensional image tiles, which must be reconstructed before analysis. We developed the BigStitcher software to address this challenge. BigStitcher enables interactive visualization, fast and precise alignment, spatially resolved quality estimation, real-time fusion and deconvolution of dual-illumination, multitile, multiview datasets. The software also compensates for optical effects, thereby improving accuracy and enabling subsequent biological analysis.

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