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2363 Janelia Publications

Showing 91-100 of 2363 results
06/06/23 | A Connectome of the Male Drosophila Ventral Nerve Cord
Shin-ya Takemura , Kenneth J Hayworth , Gary B Huang , Michal Januszewski , Zhiyuan Lu , Elizabeth C Marin , Stephan Preibisch , C Shan Xu , John Bogovic , Andrew S Champion , Han S J Cheong , Marta Costa , Katharina Eichler , William Katz , Christopher Knecht , Feng Li , Billy J Morris , Christopher Ordish , Patricia K Rivlin , Philipp Schlegel , Kazunori Shinomiya , Tomke Sturner , Ting Zhao , Griffin Badalamente , Dennis Bailey , Paul Brooks , Brandon S Canino , Jody Clements , Michael Cook , Octave Duclos , Christopher R Dunne , Kelli Fairbanks , Siqi Fang , Samantha Finley-May , Audrey Francis , Reed George , Marina Gkantia , Kyle Harrington , Gary Patrick Hopkins , Joseph Hsu , Philip M Hubbard , Alexandre Javier , Dagmar Kainmueller , Wyatt Korff , Julie Kovalyak , Dominik Krzeminski , Shirley A Lauchie , Alanna Lohff , Charli Maldonado , Emily A Manley , Caroline Mooney , Erika Neace , Matthew Nichols , Omotara Ogundeyi , Nneoma Okeoma , Tyler Paterson , Elliott Phillips , Emily M Phillips , Caitlin Ribeiro , Sean M Ryan , Jon Thomson Rymer , Anne K Scott , Ashley L Scott , David Shepherd , Aya Shinomiya , Claire Smith , Alia Suleiman , Satoko Takemura , Iris Talebi , Imaan F M Tamimi , Eric T Trautman , Lowell Umayam , John J Walsh , Tansy Yang , Gerald M Rubin , Louis K Scheffer , Jan Funke , Stephan Saalfeld , Harald F Hess , Stephen M Plaza , Gwyneth M Card , Gregory S X E Jefferis , Stuart Berg
bioRxiv. 2023 Jun 06:. doi: 10.1101/2023.06.05.543757

Animal behavior is principally expressed through neural control of muscles. Therefore understanding how the brain controls behavior requires mapping neuronal circuits all the way to motor neurons. We have previously established technology to collect large-volume electron microscopy data sets of neural tissue and fully reconstruct the morphology of the neurons and their chemical synaptic connections throughout the volume. Using these tools we generated a dense wiring diagram, or connectome, for a large portion of the Drosophila central brain. However, in most animals, including the fly, the majority of motor neurons are located outside the brain in a neural center closer to the body, i.e. the mammalian spinal cord or insect ventral nerve cord (VNC). In this paper, we extend our effort to map full neural circuits for behavior by generating a connectome of the VNC of a male fly.

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06/06/23 | Systematic annotation of a complete adult male Drosophila nerve cord connectome reveals principles of functional organisation
Elizabeth C Marin , Billy J Morris , Tomke Stuerner , Andrew S Champion , Dominik Krzeminski , Griffin Badalamente , Marina Gkantia , Imaan F M Tamimi , Siqi Fang , Sung Soo Moon , Han S J Cheong , Feng Li , Philipp Schlegel , Stuart Berg , FlyEM Project Team , Gwyneth M Card , Marta Costa , David Shepherd , Gregory S X E Jefferis
bioRxiv. 2023 Jun 06:. doi: 10.1101/2023.06.05.543407

Our companion paper (Takemura et al., 2023) introduces the first completely proofread connectome of the nerve cord of an animal that can walk or fly. The base connectome consists of neuronal morphologies and the connections between them. However, in order to efficiently navigate and understand this connectome, it is crucial to have a system of annotations that systematically categorises and names neurons, linking them to the existing literature. In this paper we describe the comprehensive annotation of the VNC connectome, first by a system of hierarchical coarse annotations, then by grouping left-right and serially homologous neurons and eventually by defining systematic cell types for the intrinsic interneurons and sensory neurons of the VNC; descending and motor neurons are typed in (Cheong et al., 2023). We assign a sensory modality to over 5000 sensory neurons, cluster them by connectivity, and identify serially homologous cell types and a layered organisation likely corresponding to peripheral topography. We identify the developmental neuroblast of origin of the large majority of VNC neurons and confirm that (in most cases) all secondary neurons of each hemilineage express a single neurotransmitter. Neuroblast hemilineages are serially repeated along the segments of the nerve cord and generally exhibit consistent hemilineage-to-hemilineage connectivity across neuromeres, supporting the idea that hemilineages are a major organisational feature of the VNC. We also find that more than a third of individual neurons belong to serially homologous cell types, which were crucial for identifying motor neurons and sensory neurons across leg neuropils. Categorising interneurons by their neuropil innervation patterns provides an additional organisation axis. Over half of the intrinsic neurons of the VNC appear dedicated to the legs, with the majority restricted to single leg neuropils; in contrast, inhibitory interneurons connecting different leg neuropils, especially those crossing the midline, appear rarer than anticipated by standard models of locomotor circuitry. Our annotations are being released as part of the web application and also serve as the basis of programmatic analysis of the connectome through dedicated tools that we describe in this paper.

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06/05/23 | Direct measurement of dynamic attractant gradients reveals breakdown of the Patlak-Keller-Segel chemotaxis model
Trung V. Phan , Henry H. Mattingly , Lam Vo , Jonathan S. Marvin , Loren L. Looger , Thierry Emonet
bioRxiv. 2023 Jun 05:. doi: 10.1101/2023.06.01.543315

Chemotactic bacteria not only navigate chemical gradients, but also shape their environments by consuming and secreting attractants. Investigating how these processes influence the dynamics of bacterial populations has been challenging because of a lack of experimental methods for measuring spatial profiles of chemoattractants in real time. Here, we use a fluorescent sensor for aspartate to directly measure bacterially generated chemoattractant gradients during collective migration. Our measurements show that the standard Patlak-Keller-Segel model for collective chemotactic bacterial migration breaks down at high cell densities. To address this, we propose modifications to the model that consider the impact of cell density on bacterial chemotaxis and attractant consumption. With these changes, the model explains our experimental data across all cell densities, offering new insight into chemotactic dynamics. Our findings highlight the significance of considering cell density effects on bacterial behavior, and the potential for fluorescent metabolite sensors to shed light on the complex emergent dynamics of bacterial communities.

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06/01/23 | BigNeuron: a resource to benchmark and predict performance of algorithms for automated tracing of neurons in light microscopy datasets.
Manubens-Gil L, Zhou Z, Chen H, Ramanathan A, Liu X, Liu Y, Bria A, Gillette T, Ruan Z, Yang J, Radojević M, Zhao T, Cheng L, Qu L, Liu S, Bouchard KE, Gu L, Cai W, Ji S, Roysam B, Wang C, Yu H, Sironi A, Iascone DM, Zhou J, Bas E, Conde-Sousa E, Aguiar P, Li X, Li Y, Nanda S, Wang Y, Muresan L, Fua P, Ye B, He H, Staiger JF, Peter M, Cox DN, Simonneau M, Oberlaender M, Jefferis G, Ito K, Gonzalez-Bellido P, Kim J, Rubel E, Cline HT, Zeng H, Nern A, Chiang A, Yao J, Roskams J, Livesey R, Stevens J, Liu T, Dang C, Guo Y, Zhong N, Tourassi G, Hill S, Hawrylycz M, Koch C, Meijering E, Ascoli GA, Peng H
Nature Methods. 2023 Jun 01;20(6):. doi: 10.1038/s41592-023-01848-5

BigNeuron is an open community bench-testing platform with the goal of setting open standards for accurate and fast automatic neuron tracing. We gathered a diverse set of image volumes across several species that is representative of the data obtained in many neuroscience laboratories interested in neuron tracing. Here, we report generated gold standard manual annotations for a subset of the available imaging datasets and quantified tracing quality for 35 automatic tracing algorithms. The goal of generating such a hand-curated diverse dataset is to advance the development of tracing algorithms and enable generalizable benchmarking. Together with image quality features, we pooled the data in an interactive web application that enables users and developers to perform principal component analysis, t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding, correlation and clustering, visualization of imaging and tracing data, and benchmarking of automatic tracing algorithms in user-defined data subsets. The image quality metrics explain most of the variance in the data, followed by neuromorphological features related to neuron size. We observed that diverse algorithms can provide complementary information to obtain accurate results and developed a method to iteratively combine methods and generate consensus reconstructions. The consensus trees obtained provide estimates of the neuron structure ground truth that typically outperform single algorithms in noisy datasets. However, specific algorithms may outperform the consensus tree strategy in specific imaging conditions. Finally, to aid users in predicting the most accurate automatic tracing results without manual annotations for comparison, we used support vector machine regression to predict reconstruction quality given an image volume and a set of automatic tracings.

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06/01/23 | Glutamate indicators with improved activation kinetics and localization for imaging synaptic transmission.
Aggarwal A, Liu R, Chen Y, Ralowicz AJ, Bergerson SJ, Tomaska F, Mohar B, Hanson TL, Hasseman JP, Reep D, Tsegaye G, Yao P, Ji X, Kloos M, Walpita D, Patel R, Mohr MA, Tillberg PW, GENIE Project Team , Looger LL, Marvin JS, Hoppa MB, Konnerth A, Kleinfeld D, Schreiter ER, Podgorski K
Nature Methods. 2023 Jun 01;20(6):. doi: 10.1038/s41592-023-01863-6

The fluorescent glutamate indicator iGluSnFR enables imaging of neurotransmission with genetic and molecular specificity. However, existing iGluSnFR variants exhibit low in vivo signal-to-noise ratios, saturating activation kinetics and exclusion from postsynaptic densities. Using a multiassay screen in bacteria, soluble protein and cultured neurons, we generated variants with improved signal-to-noise ratios and kinetics. We developed surface display constructs that improve iGluSnFR's nanoscopic localization to postsynapses. The resulting indicator iGluSnFR3 exhibits rapid nonsaturating activation kinetics and reports synaptic glutamate release with decreased saturation and increased specificity versus extrasynaptic signals in cultured neurons. Simultaneous imaging and electrophysiology at individual boutons in mouse visual cortex showed that iGluSnFR3 transients report single action potentials with high specificity. In vibrissal sensory cortex layer 4, we used iGluSnFR3 to characterize distinct patterns of touch-evoked feedforward input from thalamocortical boutons and both feedforward and recurrent input onto L4 cortical neuron dendritic spines.

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06/01/23 | Rejuvenating old fluorophores with new chemistry.
Schnermann MJ, Lavis LD
Current Opinions in Chemical Biology. 2023 Jun 01;75:102335. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2023.102335

The field of organic chemistry began with 19th century scientists identifying and then expanding upon synthetic dye molecules for textiles. In the 20th century, dye chemistry continued with the aim of developing photographic sensitizers and laser dyes. Now, in the 21st century, the rapid evolution of biological imaging techniques provides a new driving force for dye chemistry. Of the extant collection of synthetic fluorescent dyes for biological imaging, two classes reign supreme: rhodamines and cyanines. Here, we provide an overview of recent examples where modern chemistry is used to build these old-but-venerable classes of optically responsive molecules. These new synthetic methods access new fluorophores, which then enable sophisticated imaging experiments leading to new biological insights.

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06/01/23 | Single-cell type analysis of wing premotor circuits in the ventral nerve cord of Drosophila melanogaster
Erica Ehrhardt , Samuel C Whitehead , Shigehiro Namiki , Ryo Minegishi , Igor Siwanowicz , Kai Feng , Hideo Otsuna , FlyLight Project Team , Geoffrey W Meissner , David Stern , Jim Truman , David Shepherd , Michael H. Dickinson , Kei Ito , Barry J Dickson , Itai Cohen , Gwyneth M Card , Wyatt Korff
bioRxiv. 2023 Jun 01:. doi: 10.1101/2023.05.31.542897

To perform most behaviors, animals must send commands from higher-order processing centers in the brain to premotor circuits that reside in ganglia distinct from the brain, such as the mammalian spinal cord or insect ventral nerve cord. How these circuits are functionally organized to generate the great diversity of animal behavior remains unclear. An important first step in unraveling the organization of premotor circuits is to identify their constituent cell types and create tools to monitor and manipulate these with high specificity to assess their function. This is possible in the tractable ventral nerve cord of the fly. To generate such a toolkit, we used a combinatorial genetic technique (split-GAL4) to create 195 sparse driver lines targeting 198 individual cell types in the ventral nerve cord. These included wing and haltere motoneurons, modulatory neurons, and interneurons. Using a combination of behavioral, developmental, and anatomical analyses, we systematically characterized the cell types targeted in our collection. Taken together, the resources and results presented here form a powerful toolkit for future investigations of neural circuits and connectivity of premotor circuits while linking them to behavioral outputs.

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06/01/23 | Structural Diversity within the Endoplasmic Reticulum-From the Microscale to the Nanoscale.
Obara CJ, Moore AS, Lippincott-Schwartz J
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. 2023 Jun 01;15(6):. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a041259

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a continuous, highly dynamic membrane compartment that is crucial for numerous basic cellular functions. The ER stretches from the nuclear envelope to the outer periphery of all living eukaryotic cells. This ubiquitous organelle shows remarkable structural complexity, adopting a range of shapes, curvatures, and length scales. Canonically, the ER is thought to be composed of two simple membrane elements: sheets and tubules. However, recent advances in superresolution light microscopy and three-dimensional electron microscopy have revealed an astounding diversity of nanoscale ER structures, greatly expanding our view of ER organization. In this review, we describe these diverse ER structures, focusing on what is known of their regulation and associated functions in mammalian cells.

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05/31/23 | Comparative connectomics and escape behavior in larvae of closely related Drosophila species.
Zhu J, Boivin J, Pang S, Xu CS, Lu Z, Saalfeld S, Hess HF, Ohyama T
Current Biology. 2023 May 31:. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2023.05.043

Evolution has generated an enormous variety of morphological, physiological, and behavioral traits in animals. How do behaviors evolve in different directions in species equipped with similar neurons and molecular components? Here we adopted a comparative approach to investigate the similarities and differences of escape behaviors in response to noxious stimuli and their underlying neural circuits between closely related drosophilid species. Drosophilids show a wide range of escape behaviors in response to noxious cues, including escape crawling, stopping, head casting, and rolling. Here we find that D. santomea, compared with its close relative D. melanogaster, shows a higher probability of rolling in response to noxious stimulation. To assess whether this behavioral difference could be attributed to differences in neural circuitry, we generated focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope volumes of the ventral nerve cord of D. santomea to reconstruct the downstream partners of mdIV, a nociceptive sensory neuron in D. melanogaster. Along with partner interneurons of mdVI (including Basin-2, a multisensory integration neuron necessary for rolling) previously identified in D. melanogaster, we identified two additional partners of mdVI in D. santomea. Finally, we showed that joint activation of one of the partners (Basin-1) and a common partner (Basin-2) in D. melanogaster increased rolling probability, suggesting that the high rolling probability in D. santomea is mediated by the additional activation of Basin-1 by mdIV. These results provide a plausible mechanistic explanation for how closely related species exhibit quantitative differences in the likelihood of expressing the same behavior.

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05/30/23 | Mechanisms of memory storage and retrieval in hippocampal area CA3
Yiding Li , John J. Briguglio , Sandro Romani , Jeffrey C. Magee
bioRxiv. 2023 May 30:. doi: 10.1101/2023.05.30.542781

Hippocampal area CA3 is thought to play a central role in memory formation and retrieval. Although various network mechanisms have been hypothesized to mediate these computations, direct evidence is lacking. Using intracellular membrane potential recordings from CA3 neurons and optogenetic manipulations in behaving mice we found that place field activity is produced by a symmetric form of Behavioral Timescale Synaptic Plasticity (BTSP) at recurrent synaptic connections among CA3 principal neurons but not at synapses from the dentate gyrus (DG). Additional manipulations revealed that excitatory input from the entorhinal cortex (EC) but not DG was required to update place cell activity based on the animal’s movement. These data were captured by a computational model that used BTSP and an external updating input to produce attractor dynamics under online learning conditions. Additional theoretical results demonstrate the enhanced memory storage capacity of such networks, particularly in the face of correlated input patterns. The evidence sheds light on the cellular and circuit mechanisms of learning and memory formation in the hippocampus.

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