Main Menu (Mobile)- Block
Main Menu - Block
Transcription factor proteins regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA regions. Most studies of transcription factor binding sites have focused on the highest affinity sites for each factor. There is abundant evidence, however, that binding sites with a range of affinities, including very low affinities, are critical to gene regulation. Here, we present the theoretical and experimental evidence for the importance of low-affinity sites in gene regulation and development. We also discuss the implications of the widespread use of low-affinity sites in eukaryotic genomes for robustness, precision, specificity, and evolution of gene regulation.