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Note: Research in this publication was not performed at Janelia.
The gall-forming aphidCerataphis fransseni produces soldiers that defend against predators. Soldiers are produced soon after colony foundation and the number of soldiers increases nonlinearly during colony growth. The number of soldiers scales to the square-root of the number of non-soldiers and linearly to the surface area of the gall. This suggests that soldiers are produced to defend an area, for example the perimeter of the colony or the surface of the gall, rather than individual aphids.