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Medial frontal cortical areas are thought to play a critical role in the brain's ability to flexibly deploy strategies that are effective in complex settings. Still, the specific circuit computations that underpin this foundational aspect of intelligence remain unclear. Here, by examining neural ensemble activity in rats that sample different strategies in a self-guided search for latent task structure, we demonstrate a robust tracking of individual strategy prevalence in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), especially in an area homologous to primate area 32D. Prevalence encoding in the ACC is wide-scale, independent of reward delivery, and persists through a substantial ensemble reorganization that tags ACC representations with contextual content. Our findings argue that ACC ensemble dynamics is structured by a summary statistic of recent behavioral choices, raising the possibility that ACC plays a role in estimating - through statistical learning - which actions promote the occurrence of events in the environment.