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The development of single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) has sparked a revolution in biological imaging, allowing 'super-resolution' fluorescence microscopy below the diffraction limit of light. The last decade has seen an explosion in not only optical hardware for SMLM but also the development or repurposing of fluorescent proteins and small-molecule fluorescent probes for this technique. In this review, written by chemists for chemists, we detail the history of single-molecule localization microscopy and collate the collection of probes with demonstrated utility in SMLM. We hope it will serve as a primer for probe choice in localization microscopy as well as an inspiration for the development of new fluorophores that enable imaging of biological samples with exquisite detail.