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Note: Research in this publication was not performed at Janelia.
Cell-surface proteins (CSPs) mediate intercellular communication throughout the lives of multicellular organisms. However, there are no generalizable methods for quantitative CSP profiling in specific cell types in vertebrate tissues. Here, we present in situ cell-surface proteome extraction by extracellular labeling (iPEEL), a proximity labeling method in mice that enables spatiotemporally precise labeling of cell-surface proteomes in a cell-type-specific environment in native tissues for discovery proteomics. Applying iPEEL to developing and mature cerebellar Purkinje cells revealed differential enrichment in CSPs with post-translational protein processing and synaptic functions in the developing and mature cell-surface proteomes, respectively. A proteome-instructed in vivo loss-of-function screen identified a critical, multifaceted role for Armh4 in Purkinje cell dendrite morphogenesis. Armh4 overexpression also disrupts dendrite morphogenesis; this effect requires its conserved cytoplasmic domain and is augmented by disrupting its endocytosis. Our results highlight the utility of CSP profiling in native mammalian tissues for identifying regulators of cell-surface signaling.