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Naïve Bayes Nearest Neighbour (NBNN) is a simple and effective framework which addresses many of the pitfalls of K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN) classification. It has yielded competitive results on several computer vision benchmarks. Its central tenet is that during NN search, a query is not compared to every example in a database, ignoring class information. Instead, NN searches are performed within each class, generating a score per class. A key problem with NN techniques, including NBNN, is that they fail when the data representation does not capture perceptual (e.g. class-based) similarity. NBNN circumvents this by using independent engineered descriptors (e.g. SIFT). To extend its applicability outside of image-based domains, we propose to learn a metric which captures perceptual similarity. Similar to how Neighbourhood Components Analysis optimizes a differentiable form of KNN classification, we propose 'Class Conditional' metric learning (CCML), which optimizes a soft form of the NBNN selection rule. Typical metric learning algorithms learn either a global or local metric. However, our proposed method can be adjusted to a particular level of locality by tuning a single parameter. An empirical evaluation on classification and retrieval tasks demonstrates that our proposed method clearly outperforms existing learned distance metrics across a variety of image and non-image datasets.