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Although the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been a biological model organism for over a century, its emergence as a model system for the study of neurophysiology is comparatively recent. The primary reason for this is that the vinegar fly and its neurons are tiny; up until 5 years ago, it was prohibitively difficult to record intracellularly from individual neurons in the intact Drosophila brain (Wilson et al., 2004). Today, fly electrophysiologists can genetically label neurons with GFP and reliably record from many (but not all) neurons in the fruit fly brain. Using genetic tools to drive expression of fluorescent calcium indicators, light-sensitive ion channels, or cell activity suppressors, we are beginning to understand how the external environment is represented with electrical potentials in Drosophila neurons (for review, see Olsen and Wilson, 2008).