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The mammalian brain is best understood as a multi-scale hierarchical neural system, in the sense that connection and function occur on multiple scales from micro to macro. Modern genomic-scale expression profiling can provide insight into methodologies that elucidate this architecture. We present a methodology for understanding the relationship of gene expression and neuroanatomy based on correlation between gene expression profiles across tissue samples. A resulting tool, NeuroBlast, can identify networks of genes co-expressed within or across neuroanatomic structures. The method applies to any data modality that can be mapped with sufficient spatial resolution, and provides a computation technique to elucidate neuroanatomy via patterns of gene expression on spatial and temporal scales. In addition, from the perspective of spatial location, we discuss a complementary technique that identifies gene classes that contribute to defining anatomic patterns.