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Brains contain networks of interconnected neurons, so knowing the network architecture is essential for understanding brain function. We therefore mapped the synaptic-resolution connectome of an insect brain (Drosophila larva) with rich behavior, including learning, value-computation, and action-selection, comprising 3,013 neurons and 544,000 synapses. We characterized neuron-types, hubs, feedforward and feedback pathways, and cross-hemisphere and brain-nerve cord interactions. We found pervasive multisensory and interhemispheric integration, highly recurrent architecture, abundant feedback from descending neurons, and multiple novel circuit motifs. The brain’s most recurrent circuits comprised the input and output neurons of the learning center. Some structural features, including multilayer shortcuts and nested recurrent loops, resembled powerful machine learning architectures. The identified brain architecture provides a basis for future experimental and theoretical studies of neural circuits.