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We advance two-photon microscopy for near-diffraction-limited imaging up to 850 µm below the pia in awake mice. Our approach combines direct wavefront sensing of light from a guidestar (formed by descanned fluorescence from Cy5.5-conjugated dextran in brain microvessels) with adaptive optics to compensate for tissue-induced aberrations in the wavefront. We achieve high signal-to-noise ratios in recordings of glutamate release from thalamocortical axons and calcium transients in spines of layer 5b basal dendrites during active tactile sensing.