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Communication between neurons in the brain occurs primarily through synapses made onto elaborate treelike structures called dendrites. New electrical and optical recording techniques have led to tremendous advances in our understanding of how dendrites contribute to neuronal computation in the mammalian brain. The varied morphology and electrical and chemical properties of dendrites enable a spectrum of local and long-range signaling, defining the input-output relationship of neurons and the rules for induction of synaptic plasticity. In this way, diversity in dendritic signaling allows individual neurons to carry out specialized functions within their respective networks.