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The anatomical and electrophysiological properties of neurons in the stratum lucidum of the CA3 subfield of the hippocampus were examined by using patch-pipette recordings combined with biocytin staining. This method facilitated the analysis of the morphological features and passive and active properties of a recently described class of spiny neurons in the stratum lucidum, as well as aspiny neurons in this region. Some, but not all, synaptic inputs of both types of neurons were found to arise from the mossy fiber system. The axons of spiny neurons in the stratum lucidum were heavily collateralized, terminating primarily in the stratum lucidum and stratum radiatum of CA3, and to a lesser extent in the stratum pyramidale and stratum oriens. Only a few axonal projections were found that extended beyond the CA3 region into CA1 and the hilus. Aspiny neurons fell into two classes: those projecting axons to the stratum lucidum and stratum radiatum of CA3 and those with axon terminations mainly in the stratum pyramidale and stratum oriens. The electrophysiological properties of spiny and aspiny neurons in the stratum lucidum were similar, but on average, the aspiny neurons had significantly higher maximal firing rates and narrower action potential half-widths. The results demonstrate that a diverse population of neurons exists in the region of mossy fiber termination in area CA3. These neurons may be involved in local-circuit feedback, or feed-forward systems controlling the flow of information through the hippocampus.