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Our companion paper (Takemura et al., 2023) introduces the first completely proofread connectome of the nerve cord of an animal that can walk or fly. The base connectome consists of neuronal morphologies and the connections between them. However, in order to efficiently navigate and understand this connectome, it is crucial to have a system of annotations that systematically categorises and names neurons, linking them to the existing literature. In this paper we describe the comprehensive annotation of the VNC connectome, first by a system of hierarchical coarse annotations, then by grouping left-right and serially homologous neurons and eventually by defining systematic cell types for the intrinsic interneurons and sensory neurons of the VNC; descending and motor neurons are typed in (Cheong et al., 2023). We assign a sensory modality to over 5000 sensory neurons, cluster them by connectivity, and identify serially homologous cell types and a layered organisation likely corresponding to peripheral topography. We identify the developmental neuroblast of origin of the large majority of VNC neurons and confirm that (in most cases) all secondary neurons of each hemilineage express a single neurotransmitter. Neuroblast hemilineages are serially repeated along the segments of the nerve cord and generally exhibit consistent hemilineage-to-hemilineage connectivity across neuromeres, supporting the idea that hemilineages are a major organisational feature of the VNC. We also find that more than a third of individual neurons belong to serially homologous cell types, which were crucial for identifying motor neurons and sensory neurons across leg neuropils. Categorising interneurons by their neuropil innervation patterns provides an additional organisation axis. Over half of the intrinsic neurons of the VNC appear dedicated to the legs, with the majority restricted to single leg neuropils; in contrast, inhibitory interneurons connecting different leg neuropils, especially those crossing the midline, appear rarer than anticipated by standard models of locomotor circuitry. Our annotations are being released as part of the neuprint.janelia.org web application and also serve as the basis of programmatic analysis of the connectome through dedicated tools that we describe in this paper.