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The functional features of neural circuits are determined by a combination of properties that range in scale from projections systems across the whole brain to molecular interactions at the synapse. The burgeoning field of neurocartography seeks to map these relevant features of brain structure—spanning a volume ∼20 orders of magnitude—to determine how neural circuits perform computations supporting cognitive function and complex behavior. Recent technological breakthroughs in tissue sample preparation, high-throughput electron microscopy imaging, and automated image analyses have produced the first visualizations of all synaptic connections between neurons of invertebrate model systems. However, the sheer size of the central nervous system in mammals implies that reconstruction of the first full brain maps at synaptic scale may not be feasible for decades. In this review, we outline existing and emerging technologies for neurocartography that complement electron microscopy-based strategies and are beginning to derive some basic organizing principles of circuit hodology at the mesoscale, microscale, and nanoscale. Specifically, we discuss how a host of light microscopy techniques including array tomography have been utilized to determine both long-range and subcellular organizing principles of synaptic connectivity. In addition, we discuss how new techniques, such as two-photon serial tomography of the entire mouse brain, have become attractive approaches to dissect the potential connectivity of defined cell types. Ultimately, principles derived from these techniques promise to facilitate a conceptual understanding of how connectomes, and neurocartography in general, can be effectively utilized toward reaching a mechanistic understanding of circuit function.