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788 Janelia Publications

Showing 1-10 of 788 results
04/01/13 | 3D Haar-like elliptical features for object classification in microscopy.
Amat F, Keller PJ
International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging. 2013 Apr:

Object detection and classification are key tasks in computer vision that can facilitate high-throughput image analysis of microscopy data. We present a set of local image descriptors for three-dimensional (3D) microscopy datasets inspired by the well-known Haar wavelet framework. We add orientation, illumination and scale information by assuming that the neighborhood surrounding points of interests in the image can be described with ellipsoids, and we increase discriminative power by incorporating edge and shape information into the features. The calculation of the local image descriptors is implemented in a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) in order to reduce computation time to 1 millisecond per object of interest. We present results for cell division detection in 3D time-lapse fluorescence microscopy with 97.6% accuracy.

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12/24/14 | 3D imaging of Sox2 enhancer clusters in embryonic stem cells.
Liu Z, Legant WR, Chen B, Li L, Grimm JB, Lavis LD, Betzig E, Tjian R
eLife. 2014 Dec 24;3:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.04236

Combinatorial cis-regulatory networks encoded in animal genomes represent the foundational gene expression mechanism for directing cell-fate commitment and maintenance of cell identity by transcription factors (TFs). However, the 3D spatial organization of cis-elements and how such sub-nuclear structures influence TF activity remain poorly understood. Here, we combine lattice light-sheet imaging, single-molecule tracking, numerical simulations, and ChIP-exo mapping to localize and functionally probe Sox2 enhancer-organization in living embryonic stem cells. Sox2 enhancers form 3D-clusters that are segregated from heterochromatin but overlap with a subset of Pol II enriched regions. Sox2 searches for specific binding targets via a 3D-diffusion dominant mode when shuttling long-distances between clusters while chromatin-bound states predominate within individual clusters. Thus, enhancer clustering may reduce global search efficiency but enables rapid local fine-tuning of TF search parameters. Our results suggest an integrated model linking cis-element 3D spatial distribution to local-versus-global target search modalities essential for regulating eukaryotic gene transcription.

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05/01/14 | 3D live fluorescence imaging of cellular dynamics using Bessel beam plane illumination microscopy.
Gao L, Shao L, Chen B, Betzig E
Nature Protocols. 2014 May;9:1083-101. doi: 10.1038/nprot.2014.087

3D live imaging is important for a better understanding of biological processes, but it is challenging with current techniques such as spinning-disk confocal microscopy. Bessel beam plane illumination microscopy allows high-speed 3D live fluorescence imaging of living cellular and multicellular specimens with nearly isotropic spatial resolution, low photobleaching and low photodamage. Unlike conventional fluorescence imaging techniques that usually have a unique operation mode, Bessel plane illumination has several modes that offer different performance with different imaging metrics. To achieve optimal results from this technique, the appropriate operation mode needs to be selected and the experimental setting must be optimized for the specific application and associated sample properties. Here we explain the fundamental working principles of this technique, discuss the pros and cons of each operational mode and show through examples how to optimize experimental parameters. We also describe the procedures needed to construct, align and operate a Bessel beam plane illumination microscope by using our previously reported system as an example, and we list the necessary equipment to build such a microscope. Assuming all components are readily available, it would take a person skilled in optical instrumentation \~{}1 month to assemble and operate a microscope according to this protocol.

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06/01/09 | [Analysis on acupuncture literature in Science Citation Index (SCI) periodicals in 2007].
Gao L, Tian L, Guo Y
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu = Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion. 2009 Jun;29(6):504-7. doi: 10.1364/AO.50.001792

To grasp the international developing tendency of acupuncture research and provide some references for promoting acupuncture and moxibustion internationalization process, the articles about acupuncture in Science Citation Index (SCI) periodicals in 2007 were retrieved by adopting the retrieval tactics on line in combination with database searching. Results indicate that 257 articles about acupuncture had been retrived from the SCI Web databases. These articles were published in 125 journals respectively, most of which were Euramerican journals. Among these journals, the impact factor of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), 25. 547, is the highest one. It is shown that the impact factors of the SCI periodicals, in which acupuncture articles embodied are increased, the quality of these articles are improved obviously and the types of the articles are various in 2007, but there is obvious difference in the results of these studies due to the difference of experimental methods, the subjects of these experiments and acupuncture manipulations. Therefore, standardization of many problems arising from the researches on acupuncture is extremely imminent.

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09/01/09 | A 3D digital atlas of C. elegans and its application to single-cell analyses.
Long F, Peng H, Liu X, Kim SK, Myers E
Nature Methods. 2009 Sep;6:667-72. doi: 10.1007/s12021-010-9090-x

We built a digital nuclear atlas of the newly hatched, first larval stage (L1) of the wild-type hermaphrodite of Caenorhabditis elegans at single-cell resolution from confocal image stacks of 15 individual worms. The atlas quantifies the stereotypy of nuclear locations and provides other statistics on the spatial patterns of the 357 nuclei that could be faithfully segmented and annotated out of the 558 present at this developmental stage. We then developed an automated approach to assign cell names to each nucleus in a three-dimensional image of an L1 worm. We achieved 86% accuracy in identifying the 357 nuclei automatically. This computational method will allow high-throughput single-cell analyses of the post-embryonic worm, such as gene expression analysis, or ablation or stimulation of cells under computer control in a high-throughput functional screen.

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10/01/12 | A battery-free multichannel digital neural/EMG telemetry system for flying insects.
Thomas SJ, Harrison RR., Leonardo A, Reynolds MS
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems. 2012 Oct;6(5):424-36. doi: 10.1109/TBCAS.2012.2222881

This paper presents a digital neural/EMG telemetry system small enough and lightweight enough to permit recording from insects in flight. It has a measured flight package mass of only 38 mg. This system includes a single-chip telemetry integrated circuit (IC) employing RF power harvesting for battery-free operation, with communication via modulated backscatter in the UHF (902-928 MHz) band. An on-chip 11-bit ADC digitizes 10 neural channels with a sampling rate of 26.1 kSps and 4 EMG channels at 1.63 kSps, and telemeters this data wirelessly to a base station. The companion base station transceiver includes an RF transmitter of +36 dBm (4 W) output power to wirelessly power the telemetry IC, and a digital receiver with a sensitivity of -70 dBm for 10⁻⁵ BER at 5.0 Mbps to receive the data stream from the telemetry IC. The telemetry chip was fabricated in a commercial 0.35 μ m 4M1P (4 metal, 1 poly) CMOS process. The die measures 2.36 × 1.88 mm, is 250 μm thick, and is wire bonded into a flex circuit assembly measuring 4.6 × 6.8 mm.

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02/01/09 | A bright and photostable photoconvertible fluorescent protein.
McKinney SA, Murphy CS, Hazelwood KL, Davidson MW, Looger LL
Nature Methods. 2009 Feb;6(2):131-3. doi: 10.1038/nmeth.1296

Photoconvertible fluorescent proteins are potential tools for investigating dynamic processes in living cells and for emerging super-resolution microscopy techniques. Unfortunately, most probes in this class are hampered by oligomerization, small photon budgets or poor photostability. Here we report an EosFP variant that functions well in a broad range of protein fusions for dynamic investigations, exhibits high photostability and preserves the approximately 10-nm localization precision of its parent.

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04/21/15 | A cellular resolution map of barrel cortex activity during tactile behavior.
Peron SP, Freeman J, Iyer V, Guo C, Svoboda K
Neuron. 2015 Apr 21:. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2015.03.027

Comprehensive measurement of neural activity remains challenging due to the large numbers of neurons in each brain area. We used volumetric two-photon imaging in mice expressing GCaMP6s and nuclear red fluorescent proteins to sample activity in 75% of superficial barrel cortex neurons across the relevant cortical columns, approximately 12,000 neurons per animal, during performance of a single whisker object localization task. Task-related activity peaked during object palpation. An encoding model related activity to behavioral variables. In the column corresponding to the spared whisker, 300 layer (L) 2/3 pyramidal neurons (17%) each encoded touch and whisker movements. Touch representation declined by half in surrounding columns; whisker movement representation was unchanged. Following the emergence of stereotyped task-related movement, sensory representations showed no measurable plasticity. Touch direction was topographically organized, with distinct organization for passive and active touch. Our work reveals sparse and spatially intermingled representations of multiple tactile features.

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04/28/11 | A combinatorial semaphorin code instructs the initial steps of sensory circuit assembly in the Drosophila CNS.
Wu Z, Sweeney LB, Ayoob JC, Chak K, Andreone BJ, Ohyama T, Kerr R, Luo L, Zlatic M, Kolodkin AL
Neuron. 2011 Apr 28;70(2):281-98. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2011.02.050

Longitudinal axon fascicles within the Drosophila embryonic CNS provide connections between body segments and are required for coordinated neural signaling along the anterior-posterior axis. We show here that establishment of select CNS longitudinal tracts and formation of precise mechanosensory afferent innervation to the same CNS region are coordinately regulated by the secreted semaphorins Sema-2a and Sema-2b. Both Sema-2a and Sema-2b utilize the same neuronal receptor, plexin B (PlexB), but serve distinct guidance functions. Localized Sema-2b attraction promotes the initial assembly of a subset of CNS longitudinal projections and subsequent targeting of chordotonal sensory afferent axons to these same longitudinal connectives, whereas broader Sema-2a repulsion serves to prevent aberrant innervation. In the absence of Sema-2b or PlexB, chordotonal afferent connectivity within the CNS is severely disrupted, resulting in specific larval behavioral deficits. These results reveal that distinct semaphorin-mediated guidance functions converge at PlexB and are critical for functional neural circuit assembly.

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07/09/15 | A common evolutionary origin for the ON- and OFF-edge motion detection pathways of the Drosophila visual system.
Shinomiya K, Takemura S, Rivlin PK, Plaza SM, Scheffer LK, Meinertzhagen IA
Frontiers in neural circuits. 2015;9:33. doi: 10.3389/fncir.2015.00033

Synaptic circuits for identified behaviors in the Drosophila brain have typically been considered from either a developmental or functional perspective without reference to how the circuits might have been inherited from ancestral forms. For example, two candidate pathways for ON- and OFF-edge motion detection in the visual system act via circuits that use respectively either T4 or T5, two cell types of the fourth neuropil, or lobula plate (LOP), that exhibit narrow-field direction-selective responses and provide input to wide-field tangential neurons. T4 or T5 both have four subtypes that terminate one each in the four strata of the LOP. Representatives are reported in a wide range of Diptera, and both cell types exhibit various similarities in: (1) the morphology of their dendritic arbors; (2) their four morphological and functional subtypes; (3) their cholinergic profile in Drosophila; (4) their input from the pathways of L3 cells in the first neuropil, or lamina (LA), and by one of a pair of LA cells, L1 (to the T4 pathway) and L2 (to the T5 pathway); and (5) their innervation by a single, wide-field contralateral tangential neuron from the central brain. Progenitors of both also express the gene atonal early in their proliferation from the inner anlage of the developing optic lobe, being alone among many other cell type progeny to do so. Yet T4 receives input in the second neuropil, or medulla (ME), and T5 in the third neuropil or lobula (LO). Here we suggest that these two cell types were originally one, that their ancestral cell population duplicated and split to innervate separate ME and LO neuropils, and that a fiber crossing-the internal chiasma-arose between the two neuropils. The split most plausibly occurred, we suggest, with the formation of the LO as a new neuropil that formed when it separated from its ancestral neuropil to leave the ME, suggesting additionally that ME input neurons to T4 and T5 may also have had a common origin.

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