Main Menu (Mobile)- Block
Main Menu - Block
Adenosine 5' triphosphate (ATP) is a universal intracellular energy source and an evolutionarily ancient, ubiquitous extracellular signal in diverse species. Here, we report the generation and characterization of single-wavelength genetically encoded fluorescent sensors (iATPSnFRs) for imaging extracellular and cytosolic ATP from insertion of circularly permuted superfolder GFP into the epsilon subunit of FF-ATPase from Bacillus PS3. On the cell surface and within the cytosol, iATPSnFR responds to relevant ATP concentrations (30 μM to 3 mM) with fast increases in fluorescence. iATPSnFRs can be genetically targeted to specific cell types and sub-cellular compartments, imaged with standard light microscopes, do not respond to other nucleotides and nucleosides, and when fused with a red fluorescent protein function as ratiometric indicators. After careful consideration of their modest pH sensitivity, iATPSnFRs represent promising reagents for imaging ATP in the extracellular space and within cells during a variety of settings, and for further application-specific refinements.