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Colonies of the aphidPseudoregma alexanderi produce morphologically-specialized first-instar larvae, termed soldiers, that defend the colony from predators. The environmental cues and physiological mechanisms governing soldier production are currently unknown. Here we present a morphometric study of soldiers and normal first-instar larvae ofP. alexanderi. Several morphological features (fore-leg length and width, hind-leg length, and horn length) plotted against body length display relationship that are similar to a sigmoidal curve. We found further support for an earlier finding that soldiers fall into two size categories, majors and minors, although both types of soldiers appear to follow the same allometry. The patterns of allometry in the soldier-producing aphids are very different from those found in other social insects and do not easily fit into the traditional categorization of allometries. We present two simple alternative models of soldier development as a framework for guiding future studies of the mechanisms of soldier production.