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Evolution has tuned the nervous system of most animals to produce stereotyped behavioural responses to ethologically relevant stimuli. For example, female Drosophila avoid laying eggs in the presence of geosmin, an odorant produced by toxic moulds. Using this system, we now identify third order olfactory neurons that are essential for an innate aversive behaviour. Connectomics data place these neurons in the context of a complete synaptic circuit from sensory input to descending output. We find multiple levels of valence-specific convergence, including a novel form of axo-axonic input onto second order neurons conveying another danger signal, the pheromone of parasitoid wasps. However we also observe a massive divergence as geosmin-responsive second order olfactory neurons connect with a diverse array of ∼75 cell types. Our data suggest a transition from a labelled line organisation in the periphery to one in which olfactory information is mapped onto many different higher order populations with distinct behavioural significance.