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35 Publications

Showing 1-10 of 35 results
06/13/17 | A complete electron microscopy volume of the brain of adult Drosophila melanogaster.
Yang Z, Lauritzen JS, Perlman E, Robinson CG, Nichols M, Milkie DE, Torrens O, Price J, Fisher CB, Sharifi N, Calle-Schuler SA, Kmecova L, Ali IJ, Karsh B, Trautman ET, Bogovic JA, Hanslovsky P, Jefferis GS, Kazhdan M, Khairy K
bioRxiv. 2017 Jun 13:. doi: 10.1101/140905

Drosophila melanogaster has a rich repertoire of innate and learned behaviors. Its 100,000-neuron brain is a large but tractable target for comprehensive neural circuit mapping. Only electron microscopy (EM) enables complete, unbiased mapping of synaptic connectivity; however, the fly brain is too large for conventional EM. We developed a custom high-throughput EM platform and imaged the entire brain of an adult female fly. We validated the dataset by tracing brain-spanning circuitry involving the mushroom body (MB), intensively studied for its role in learning. Here we describe the complete set of olfactory inputs to the MB; find a new cell type providing driving input to Kenyon cells (the intrinsic MB neurons); identify neurons postsynaptic to Kenyon cell dendrites; and find that axonal arbors providing input to the MB calyx are more tightly clustered than previously indicated by light-level data. This freely available EM dataset will significantly accelerate Drosophila neuroscience.

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06/05/17 | Quantitative mRNA imaging throughout the entire Drosophila brain.
Long X, Colonell J, Wong AM, Singer RH, Lionnet T
Nature Methods. 2017 Jun 05;14(7):703-6. doi: 10.1038/nmeth.4309

We describe a fluorescence in situ hybridization method that permits detection of the localization and abundance of single mRNAs (smFISH) in cleared whole-mount adult Drosophila brains. The approach is rapid and multiplexable and does not require molecular amplification; it allows facile quantification of mRNA expression with subcellular resolution on a standard confocal microscope. We further demonstrate single-mRNA detection across the entire brain using a custom Bessel beam structured illumination microscope (BB-SIM).

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05/05/17 | Detachable Glass Microelectrodes for Recording Action Potentials in Active Moving Organs.
Barbic M, Moreno A, Harris TD, Kay MW
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 2017 May 05;312(6):H1248-59. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00741.2016

We describe new detachable floating glass micropipette electrode devices that provide targeted action potential recordings in active moving organs without requiring constant mechanical constraint or pharmacological inhibition of tissue motion. The technology is based on the concept of a glass micropipette electrode that is held firmly during cell targeting and intracellular insertion, after which a 100µg glass microelectrode, a "microdevice", is gently released to remain within the moving organ. The microdevices provide long-term recordings of action potentials, even during millimeter-scale movement of tissue in which the device is embedded. We demonstrate two different glass micropipette electrode holding and detachment designs appropriate for the heart (sharp glass microdevices for cardiac myocytes in rats, guinea pigs and humans) and the brain (patch glass microdevices for neurons in rats). We explain how microdevices enable measurements of multiple cells within a moving organ that are typically difficult with other technologies. Using sharp microdevices, action potential duration (APD) was monitored continuously for 15 minutes in unconstrained perfused hearts during global ischemia-reperfusion, providing beat-to-beat measurements of changes in APD. Action potentials from neurons in the hippocampus of anaesthetized rats were measured with patch microdevices, which provided stable base potentials during long-term recordings. Our results demonstrate that detachable microdevices are an elegant and robust tool to record electrical activity with high temporal resolution and cellular level localization without disturbing the physiological working conditions of the organ.

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01/19/17 | Real-time spike sorting platform for high-density extracellular probes with ground-truth validation and drift correction.
Jun JJ, Mitelut C, Lai C, Gratiy S, Anastassiou C, Harris TD
bioRxiv. 2017 Jan 19:. doi: 10.1101/101030

Electrical recordings from a large array of electrodes give us access to neural population activity with single-cell, single-spike resolution. These recordings contain extracellular spikes which must be correctly detected and assigned to individual neurons. Despite numerous spike-sorting techniques developed in the past, a lack of high-quality ground-truth datasets hinders the validation of spike-sorting approaches. Furthermore, existing approaches requiring manual corrections are not scalable for hours of recordings exceeding 100 channels. To address these issues, we built a comprehensive spike-sorting pipeline that performs reliably under noise and probe drift by incorporating a channel-covariance feature and a clustering based on fast density-peak finding. We validated performance of our workflow using multiple ground-truth datasets that recently became available. Our software scales linearly and processes a 1000-channel recording in real-time using a single workstation. Accurate, real-time spike sorting from large recording arrays will enable more precise control of closed-loop feedback experiments and brain-computer interfaces.

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12/04/16 | Sensitive enhancement of vessel wall imaging with an endoesophageal Wireless Amplified NMR Detector (WAND).
Zeng X, Barbic M, Chen L, Qian C
Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 2016 Dec 04:. doi: 10.1002/mrm.26562

PURPOSE: To improve the imaging quality of vessel walls with an endoesophageal Wireless Amplified NMR Detector (WAND).

METHODS: A cylindrically shaped double-frequency resonator has been constructed with a single metal wire that is self-connected by a pair of nonlinear capacitors. The double-frequency resonator can convert wirelessly provided pumping power into amplified MR signals. This compact design makes the detector easily insertable into a rodent esophagus.

RESULTS: The detector has good longitudinal and axial symmetry. Compared to an external surface coil, the WAND can enhance detection sensitivity by at least 5 times, even when the distance separation between the region of interest and the detector's cylindrical surface is twice the detector's own radius. Such detection capability enables us to observe vessel walls near the aortic arch and carotid bifurcation with elevated sensitivity.

CONCLUSION: A cylindrical MRI detector integrated with a wireless-powered amplifier has been developed as an endoesophageal detector to enhance detection sensitivity of vessel walls. This detector can greatly improve the imaging quality for vessel regions that are susceptible to atherosclerotic lesions. Magn Reson Med, 2016. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

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09/14/16 | Effect of magnetic nanoparticle shape on flux amplification in inductive coil magnetic resonance detection.
Barbic M, El Bidweihy H
Journal of Applied Physics. 2016 Sep 14:104506-1-7. doi: 10.1063/1.4962451

We model and analyze the effect of particle shape on the signal amplification in inductive coil magnetic resonance detection using the reversible transverse magnetic susceptibility of oriented magnetic nanostructures. Utilizing the single magnetic domain Stoner-Wohlfarth model of uniform magnetization rotation, we reveal that different ellipsoidal particle shapes can have a pronounced effect on the magnetic flux enhancement in detection configurations typical of magnetic resonance settings. We compare and contrast the prolate ellipsoids, oblate ellipsoids, and exchange-biased spheres and show that the oblate ellipsoids and exchange-biased spheres have a significantly higher flux amplification effect than the prolate ellipsoids considered previously. In addition, oblate ellipsoids have a much broader polarizing magnetic fieldrange over which their transverse flux amplification is significant. We show the dependence of transverse flux amplification on magnetic resonance bias field and discuss the resulting signal-to-noise ratio of inductive magnetic resonance detection due to the magnetic nanoparticle-filled core of the magnetic resonance detection coil.

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05/30/16 | A bright cyan-excitable orange fluorescent protein facilitates dual-emission microscopy and enhances bioluminescence imaging in vivo.
Chu J, Oh Y, Sens A, Ataie N, Dana H, Macklin JJ, Laviv T, Welf ES, Dean KM, Zhang F, Kim BB, Tang CT, Hu M, Baird MA, Davidson MW, Kay MA, Fiolka R, Yasuda R, Kim DS, Ng H, Lin MZ
Nature Biotechnology. 2016 May 30;34(7):760-7. doi: 10.1038/nbt.3550

Orange-red fluorescent proteins (FPs) are widely used in biomedical research for multiplexed epifluorescence microscopy with GFP-based probes, but their different excitation requirements make multiplexing with new advanced microscopy methods difficult. Separately, orange-red FPs are useful for deep-tissue imaging in mammals owing to the relative tissue transmissibility of orange-red light, but their dependence on illumination limits their sensitivity as reporters in deep tissues. Here we describe CyOFP1, a bright, engineered, orange-red FP that is excitable by cyan light. We show that CyOFP1 enables single-excitation multiplexed imaging with GFP-based probes in single-photon and two-photon microscopy, including time-lapse imaging in light-sheet systems. CyOFP1 also serves as an efficient acceptor for resonance energy transfer from the highly catalytic blue-emitting luciferase NanoLuc. An optimized fusion of CyOFP1 and NanoLuc, called Antares, functions as a highly sensitive bioluminescent reporter in vivo, producing substantially brighter signals from deep tissues than firefly luciferase and other bioluminescent proteins.

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03/24/16 | Sensitive red protein calcium indicators for imaging neural activity.
Dana H, Mohar B, Sun Y, Narayan S, Gordus A, Hasseman JP, Tsegaye G, Holt GT, Hu A, Walpita D, Patel R, Macklin JJ, Bargmann CI, Ahrens MB, Schreiter ER, Jayaraman V, Looger LL, Svoboda K, Kim DS
eLife. 2016 Mar 24;5:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.12727

Genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) allow measurement of activity in large populations of neurons and in small neuronal compartments, over times of milliseconds to months. Although GFP-based GECIs are widely used for in vivo neurophysiology, GECIs with red-shifted excitation and emission spectra have advantages for in vivo imaging because of reduced scattering and absorption in tissue, and a consequent reduction in phototoxicity. However, current red GECIs are inferior to the state-of-the-art GFP-based GCaMP6 indicators for detecting and quantifying neural activity. Here we present improved red GECIs based on mRuby (jRCaMP1a, b) and mApple (jRGECO1a), with sensitivity comparable to GCaMP6. We characterized the performance of the new red GECIs in cultured neurons and in mouse, Drosophila, zebrafish and C. elegans in vivo. Red GECIs facilitate deep-tissue imaging, dual-color imaging together with GFP-based reporters, and the use of optogenetics in combination with calcium imaging.

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02/18/16 | Structured Dendritic Inhibition Supports Branch-Selective Integration in CA1 Pyramidal Cells.
Bloss EB, Cembrowski MS, Karsh B, Colonell J, Fetter RD, Spruston N
Neuron. 2016 Feb 18:. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2016.01.029

Neuronal circuit function is governed by precise patterns of connectivity between specialized groups of neurons. The diversity of GABAergic interneurons is a hallmark of cortical circuits, yet little is known about their targeting to individual postsynaptic dendrites. We examined synaptic connectivity between molecularly defined inhibitory interneurons and CA1 pyramidal cell dendrites using correlative light-electron microscopy and large-volume array tomography. We show that interneurons can be highly selective in their connectivity to specific dendritic branch types and, furthermore, exhibit precisely targeted connectivity to the origin or end of individual branches. Computational simulations indicate that the observed subcellular targeting enables control over the nonlinear integration of synaptic input or the initiation and backpropagation of action potentials in a branch-selective manner. Our results demonstrate that connectivity between interneurons and pyramidal cell dendrites is more precise and spatially segregated than previously appreciated, which may be a critical determinant of how inhibition shapes dendritic computation.

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12/03/15 | Cortex commands the performance of skilled movement.
Guo J, Graves AR, Guo WW, Zheng J, Lee A, Rodríguez-González J, Li N, Macklin JJ, Phillips JW, Mensh BD, Branson K, Hantman AW
eLife. 2015 Dec 3;4:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.10774

Mammalian cerebral cortex is accepted as being critical for voluntary motor control, but what functions depend on cortex is still unclear. Here we used rapid, reversible optogenetic inhibition to test the role of cortex during a head-fixed task in which mice reach, grab, and eat a food pellet. Sudden cortical inhibition blocked initiation or froze execution of this skilled prehension behavior, but left untrained forelimb movements unaffected. Unexpectedly, kinematically normal prehension occurred immediately after cortical inhibition even during rest periods lacking cue and pellet. This 'rebound' prehension was only evoked in trained and food-deprived animals, suggesting that a motivation-gated motor engram sufficient to evoke prehension is activated at inhibition's end. These results demonstrate the necessity and sufficiency of cortical activity for enacting a learned skill.

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