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3488 Publications

Showing 1-10 of 3488 results
11/14/19 | Genetic Identification of Vagal Sensory Neurons That Control Feeding
Ling Bai , Sheyda Mesgarzadeh , Karthik S. Ramesh , Erica L. Huey , Yin Liu , Lindsay A. Gray , Tara J. Aitken , Yiming Chen , Lisa R. Beutler , Jamie S. Ahn , Linda Madisen , Hongkui Zeng , Mark A. Krasnow , Zachary A. Knight
Cell. 11/2019;179:1129-1143.e23. doi:

Summary Energy homeostasis requires precise measurement of the quantity and quality of ingested food. The vagus nerve innervates the gut and can detect diverse interoceptive cues, but the identity of the key sensory neurons and corresponding signals that regulate food intake remains unknown. Here, we use an approach for target-specific, single-cell RNA sequencing to generate a map of the vagal cell types that innervate the gastrointestinal tract. We show that unique molecular markers identify vagal neurons with distinct innervation patterns, sensory endings, and function. Surprisingly, we find that food intake is most sensitive to stimulation of mechanoreceptors in the intestine, whereas nutrient-activated mucosal afferents have no effect. Peripheral manipulations combined with central recordings reveal that intestinal mechanoreceptors, but not other cell types, potently and durably inhibit hunger-promoting AgRP neurons in the hypothalamus. These findings identify a key role for intestinal mechanoreceptors in the regulation of feeding.

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06/19/20 | Meissner corpuscles and their spatially intermingled afferents underlie gentle touch perception
Nicole L. Neubarth , Alan J. Emanuel , Yin Liu , Mark W. Springel , Annie Handler , Qiyu Zhang , Brendan P. Lehnert , Chong Guo , Lauren L. Orefice , Amira Abdelaziz , Michelle M. DeLisle , Michael Iskols , Julia Rhyins , Soo J. Kim , Stuart J. Cattel , Wade Regehr , Christopher D. Harvey , Jan Drugowitsch , David D. Ginty
Science. 06/2020;368:eabb2751. doi: 10.1126/science.abb2751

The Meissner corpuscle, a mechanosensory end organ, was discovered more than 165 years ago and has since been found in the glabrous skin of all mammals, including that on human fingertips. Although prominently featured in textbooks, the function of the Meissner corpuscle is unknown. Neubarth et al. generated adult mice without Meissner corpuscles and used them to show that these corpuscles alone mediate behavioral responses to, and perception of, gentle forces (see the Perspective by Marshall and Patapoutian). Each Meissner corpuscle is innervated by two molecularly distinct, yet physiologically similar, mechanosensory neurons. These two neuronal subtypes are developmentally interdependent and their endings are intertwined within the corpuscle. Both Meissner mechanosensory neuron subtypes are homotypically tiled, ensuring uniform and complete coverage of the skin, yet their receptive fields are overlapping and offset with respect to each other. Science, this issue p. eabb2751; see also p. 1311 Light touch perception and fine sensorimotor control arise from spatially overlapping mechanoreceptors of the Meissner corpuscle. Meissner corpuscles are mechanosensory end organs that densely occupy mammalian glabrous skin. We generated mice that selectively lacked Meissner corpuscles and found them to be deficient in both perceiving the gentlest detectable forces acting on glabrous skin and fine sensorimotor control. We found that Meissner corpuscles are innervated by two mechanoreceptor subtypes that exhibit distinct responses to tactile stimuli. The anatomical receptive fields of these two mechanoreceptor subtypes homotypically tile glabrous skin in a manner that is offset with respect to one another. Electron microscopic analysis of the two Meissner afferents within the corpuscle supports a model in which the extent of lamellar cell wrappings of mechanoreceptor endings determines their force sensitivity thresholds and kinetic properties.

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11/13/21 | Molecular, anatomical, and functional organization of lung interoceptors
Liu Y, Diaz de Arce AJ, Krasnow MA
bioRxiv. 11/2021:. doi: 10.1101/2021.11.10.468116

Interoceptors, sensory neurons that monitor internal organs and states, are essential for physiological homeostasis and generating internal perceptions. Here we describe a comprehensive transcriptomic atlas of interoceptors of the mouse lung, defining 10 molecular subtypes that differ in developmental origin, myelination, receptive fields, terminal morphologies, and cell contacts. Each subtype expresses a unique but overlapping combination of sensory receptors that detect diverse physiological and pathological stimuli, and each can signal to distinct sets of lung cells including immune cells, forming a local neuroimmune interaction network. Functional interrogation of two mechanosensory subtypes reveals exquisitely-specific homeostatic roles in breathing, one regulating inspiratory time and the other inspiratory flow. The results suggest that lung interoceptors encode diverse and dynamic sensory information rivaling that of canonical exteroceptors, and this information is used to drive myriad local cellular interactions and enable precision control of breathing, while providing only vague perceptions of organ states.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.

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06/01/22 | Molecularly defined circuits for cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary control
Veerakumar A, Yung AR, Liu Y, Krasnow MA
Nature. 06/2022;606(7915):739 - 746. doi: 10.1038/s41586-022-04760-8

The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems regulate the activities of internal organs1, but the molecular and functional diversity of their constituent neurons and circuits remains largely unknown. Here we use retrograde neuronal tracing, single-cell RNA sequencing, optogenetics and physiological experiments to dissect the cardiac parasympathetic control circuit in mice. We show that cardiac-innervating neurons in the brainstem nucleus ambiguus (Amb) are comprised of two molecularly, anatomically and functionally distinct subtypes. The first, which we call ambiguus cardiovascular (ACV) neurons (approximately 35 neurons per Amb), define the classical cardiac parasympathetic circuit. They selectively innervate a subset of cardiac parasympathetic ganglion neurons and mediate the baroreceptor reflex, slowing heart rate and atrioventricular node conduction in response to increased blood pressure. The other, ambiguus cardiopulmonary (ACP) neurons (approximately 15 neurons per Amb) innervate cardiac ganglion neurons intermingled with and functionally indistinguishable from those innervated by ACV neurons. ACP neurons also innervate most or all lung parasympathetic ganglion neurons—clonal labelling shows that individual ACP neurons innervate both organs. ACP neurons mediate the dive reflex, the simultaneous bradycardia and bronchoconstriction that follows water immersion. Thus, parasympathetic control of the heart is organized into two parallel circuits, one that selectively controls cardiac function (ACV circuit) and another that coordinates cardiac and pulmonary function (ACP circuit). This new understanding of cardiac control has implications for treating cardiac and pulmonary diseases and for elucidating the control and coordination circuits of other organs.

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12/07/12 | Sexually Dimorphic BDNF Signaling Directs Sensory Innervation of the Mammary Gland
Yin Liu , Michael Rutlin , Siyi Huang , Colleen A. Barrick , Fan Wang , Kevin R. Jones , Lino Tessarollo , David D. Ginty
Science. 12/2012;338:1357-1360. doi: 10.1126/science.1228258

Male and female mice differ in the neuronal patterns that serve the mammary glands. Yin Liu et al. (p. 1357) now describe how gonadal hormones drive development of distinct male and female sensory innervations. Although both male and female mammary glands develop their sensory innervation similarly in early embryogenesis, once the androgens take effect, the developmental trajectories diverge. By birth, the rich network of sensory neurons present in the female is absent in the male. Androgens cause a switch from expression of the full-length neurotrophin receptor TrkB to its truncated form, TrkB.T1, both of which are expressed on the neurons. In males, truncated TrkB.T1 sequesters brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) from further activity, whereas in females, full-length TrkB binds BDNF and supports neuronal development. Androgen-driven changes in receptor expression disrupt a neuronal signaling pathway and de-innervation. How neural circuits associated with sexually dimorphic organs are differentially assembled during development is unclear. Here, we report a sexually dimorphic pattern of mouse mammary gland sensory innervation and the mechanism of its formation. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), emanating from mammary mesenchyme and signaling through its receptor TrkB on sensory axons, is required for establishing mammary gland sensory innervation of both sexes at early developmental stages. Subsequently, in males, androgens promote mammary mesenchymal expression of a truncated form of TrkB, which prevents BDNF-TrkB signaling in sensory axons and leads to a rapid loss of mammary gland innervation independent of neuronal apoptosis. Thus, sex hormone regulation of a neurotrophic factor signal directs sexually dimorphic axonal growth and maintenance, resulting in generation of a sex-specific neural circuit.

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09/20/22 | A proliferative to invasive switch is mediated by srGAP1 downregulation through the activation of TGF-β2 signaling.
Mondal C, Gacha-Garay MJ, Larkin KA, Adikes RC, Di Martino JS, Chien C, Fraser M, Eni-Aganga I, Agullo-Pascual E, Cialowicz K, Ozbek U, Naba A, Gaitas A, Fu T, Upadhyayula S, Betzig E, Matus DQ, Martin BL, Bravo-Cordero JJ
Cell Reports. 2022 Sep 20;40(12):111358. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2022.111358

Many breast cancer (BC) patients suffer from complications of metastatic disease. To form metastases, cancer cells must become migratory and coordinate both invasive and proliferative programs at distant organs. Here, we identify srGAP1 as a regulator of a proliferative-to-invasive switch in BC cells. High-resolution light-sheet microscopy demonstrates that BC cells can form actin-rich protrusions during extravasation. srGAP1 cells display a motile and invasive phenotype that facilitates their extravasation from blood vessels, as shown in zebrafish and mouse models, while attenuating tumor growth. Interestingly, a population of srGAP1 cells remain as solitary disseminated tumor cells in the lungs of mice bearing BC tumors. Overall, srGAP1 cells have increased Smad2 activation and TGF-β2 secretion, resulting in increased invasion and p27 levels to sustain quiescence. These findings identify srGAP1 as a mediator of a proliferative to invasive phenotypic switch in BC cells in vivo through a TGF-β2-mediated signaling axis.

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07/29/20 | Dense reconstruction of elongated cell lineages: overcoming suboptimum lineage encoding and sparse cell sampling
Sugino K, Miyares RL, Espinosa-Medina I, Chen H, Potter CJ, Lee T
bioRxiv. 07/2020:. doi: 10.1101/2020.07.27.223321

Acquiring both lineage and cell-type information during brain development could elucidate transcriptional programs underling neuronal diversification. This is now feasible with single-cell RNA-seq combined with CRISPR-based lineage tracing, which generates genetic barcodes with cumulative CRISPR edits. This technique has not yet been optimized to deliver high-resolution lineage reconstruction of protracted lineages. Drosophila neuronal lineages are an ideal model to consider, as multiple lineages have been morphologically mapped at single-cell resolution. Here we find the parameter ranges required to encode a representative neuronal lineage emanating from 100 stem cell divisions. We derive the optimum editing rate to be inversely proportional to lineage depth, enabling encoding to persist across lineage progression. Further, we experimentally determine the editing rates of a Cas9-deaminase in cycling neural stem cells, finding near ideal rates to map elongated Drosophila neuronal lineages. Moreover, we propose and evaluate strategies to separate recurring cell-types for lineage reconstruction. Finally, we present a simple method to combine multiple experiments, which permits dense reconstruction of protracted cell lineages despite suboptimum lineage encoding and sparse cell sampling.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.

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10/24/17 | Dual origin of enteric neurons in vagal Schwann cell precursors and the sympathetic neural crest
Isabel Espinosa-Medina , Ben Jevans , Franck Boismoreau , Zoubida Chettouh , Hideki Enomoto , Thomas Müller , Carmen Birchmeier , Alan J. Burns , Jean-François Brunet
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 10/2017;114:11980-11985. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1710308114

Most of the enteric nervous system derives from the “vagal” neural crest, lying at the level of somites 1–7, which invades the digestive tract rostro-caudally from the foregut to the hindgut. Little is known about the initial phase of this colonization, which brings enteric precursors into the foregut. Here we show that the “vagal crest” subsumes two populations of enteric precursors with contrasted origins, initial modes of migration, and destinations. Crest cells adjacent to somites 1 and 2 produce Schwann cell precursors that colonize the vagus nerve, which in turn guides them into the esophagus and stomach. Crest cells adjacent to somites 3–7 belong to the crest streams contributing to sympathetic chains: they migrate ventrally, seed the sympathetic chains, and colonize the entire digestive tract thence. Accordingly, enteric ganglia, like sympathetic ones, are atrophic when deprived of signaling through the tyrosine kinase receptor ErbB3, while half of the esophageal ganglia require, like parasympathetic ones, the nerve-associated form of the ErbB3 ligand, Neuregulin-1. These dependencies might bear relevance to Hirschsprung disease, with which alleles of Neuregulin-1 are associated.

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06/12/14 | Parasympathetic ganglia derive from Schwann cell precursors
I. Espinosa-Medina , E. Outin , C. A. Picard , Z. Chettouh , S. Dymecki , G. G. Consalez , E. Coppola , J.-F. Brunet
Science. 06/2014;345:87-90. doi: 10.1126/science.1253286

The parasympathetic nervous system helps regulate the functions of many tissues and organs, including the salivary glands and the esophagus. To do so, it needs to reach throughout the body, connecting central systems to peripheral ones. Dyachuk et al. and Espinosa-Medina et al. explored how these connections are established in mice (see the Perspective by Kalcheim and Rohrer). Progenitor cells that travel along with the developing nerves can give rise to both myelinforming Schwann cells and to parasympathetic neurons. That means the interacting nerves do not have to find each other. Instead, the beginnings of the connections are laid down as the nervous system develops. Science, this issue p. 82, p. 87; see also p. 32 Parasympathetic neurons are born from Schwann cell precursors located in the nerves that carry preganglionic fibers. [Also see Perspective by Kalcheim and Rohrer] Neural crest cells migrate extensively and give rise to most of the peripheral nervous system, including sympathetic, parasympathetic, enteric, and dorsal root ganglia. We studied how parasympathetic ganglia form close to visceral organs and what their precursors are. We find that many cranial nerve-associated crest cells coexpress the pan-autonomic determinant Paired-like homeodomain 2b (Phox2b) together with markers of Schwann cell precursors. Some give rise to Schwann cells after down-regulation of PHOX2b. Others form parasympathetic ganglia after being guided to the site of ganglion formation by the nerves that carry preganglionic fibers, a parsimonious way of wiring the pathway. Thus, cranial Schwann cell precursors are the source of parasympathetic neurons during normal development.

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10/28/21 | TEMPO: A system to sequentially label and genetically manipulate vertebrate cell lineages
Espinosa-Medina I, Feliciano D, Belmonte-Mateos C, Garcia-Marques J, Foster B, Miyares RL, Pujades C, Koyama M, Lee T
bioRxiv. 10/2021:. doi: 10.1101/2021.10.27.466134

During development, regulatory factors appear in a precise order to determine cell fates over time. To investigate complex tissue development, one should not just label cell lineages but further visualize and manipulate cells with temporal control. Current strategies for tracing vertebrate cell lineages lack genetic access to sequentially produced cells. Here we present TEMPO (Temporal Encoding and Manipulation in a Predefined Order), an imaging-readable genetic tool allowing differential labelling and manipulation of consecutive cell generations in vertebrates. TEMPO is based on CRISPR and powered by a cascade of gRNAs that drive orderly activation/inactivation of reporters/effectors. Using TEMPO to visualize zebrafish and mouse neurogenesis, we recapitulated birth-order-dependent neuronal fates. Temporally manipulating cell-cycle regulators in mouse cortex progenitors altered the proportion and distribution of neurons and glia, revealing the effects of temporal gene perturbation on serial cell fates. Thus, TEMPO enables sequential manipulation of molecular factors, crucial to study cell-type specification.One-Sentence Summary Gaining sequential genetic access to vertebrate cell lineages.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.

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