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58 Publications

Showing 31-40 of 58 results
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    07/01/03 | Mechanism of hedgehog signaling during Drosophila eye development.
    Pappu KS, Chen R, Middlebrooks BW, Woo C, Heberlein U, Mardon G
    Development. 2003 Jul;130(13):3053-62

    Although Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is essential for morphogenesis of the Drosophila eye, its exact link to the network of tissue-specific genes that regulate retinal determination has remained elusive. In this report, we demonstrate that the retinal determination gene eyes absent (eya) is the crucial link between the Hedgehog signaling pathway and photoreceptor differentiation. Specifically, we show that the mechanism by which Hh signaling controls initiation of photoreceptor differentiation is to alleviate repression of eya and decapentaplegic (dpp) expression by the zinc-finger transcription factor Cubitus interruptus (Ci(rep)). Furthermore, our results suggest that stabilized, full length Ci (Ci(act)) plays little or no role in Drosophila eye development. Moreover, while the effects of Hh are primarily concentration dependent in other tissues, hh signaling in the eye acts as a binary switch to initiate retinal morphogenesis by inducing expression of the tissue-specific factor Eya.

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    Axon pruning is widely used for the refinement of neural circuits in both vertebrates and invertebrates, and may also contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. However, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms of axon pruning. We use the stereotyped pruning of gamma neurons of the Drosophila mushroom bodies (MB) during metamorphosis to investigate these mechanisms. Detailed time course analyses indicate that MB axon pruning is mediated by local degeneration rather than retraction and that the disruption of the microtubule cytoskeleton precedes axon pruning. In addition, multiple lines of genetic evidence demonstrate an intrinsic role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in axon pruning; for example, loss-of-function mutations of the ubiquitin activating enzyme (E1) or proteasome subunits in MB neurons block axon pruning. Our findings suggest that some forms of axon pruning during development may share similarities with degeneration of axons in response to injury.

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    06/17/03 | Redesigning an antibody fragment for faster association with its antigen.
    Marvin JS, Lowman HB
    Biochemistry. 2003 Jun 17;42(23):7077-83. doi: 10.1021/bi026947q

    Traditional approaches for increasing the affinity of protein-protein complexes focus on constructing highly complementary binding surfaces. Recent theoretical simulations and experimental results suggest that electrostatic steering forces can also be manipulated to increase association rates while leaving dissociation rates unchanged, thus increasing affinity. Here we demonstrate that electrostatic attraction can be enhanced between an antibody fragment and its cognate antigen through application of a few simple rules to identify potential on-rate amplification sites that lie at the periphery of the antigen-antibody interface.

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    06/09/03 | Spike sorting in the frequency domain with overlap detection.
    Rinberg D, Bialek W, Davidowitz H, Tishby N

    This paper deals with the problem of extracting the activity of individual neurons from multi-electrode recordings. Important aspects of this work are: 1) the sorting is done in two stages - a statistical model of the spikes from different cells is built and only then are occurrences of these spikes in the data detected by scanning through the original data, 2) the spike sorting is done in the frequency domain, 3) strict statistical tests are applied to determine if and how a spike should be classiffed, 4) the statistical model for detecting overlaping spike events is proposed, 5) slow dynamics of spike shapes are tracked during long experiments. Results from the application of these techniques to data collected from the escape response system of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, are presented.

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    Tjian Lab
    06/01/03 | Diversified transcription initiation complexes expand promoter selectivity and tissue-specific gene expression.
    Hochheimer A, Tjian R
    Genes & Development. 2003 Jun 1;17(11):1309-20. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1100640108
    Truman LabRiddiford Lab
    06/01/03 | E74 exhibits stage-specific hormonal regulation in the epidermis of the tobacco hornworm, manduca sexta.
    Stilwell GE, Nelson CA, Weller J, Cui H, Hiruma K, Truman JW, Riddiford LM
    Developmental Biology. 2003 Jun 1;258(1):76-90

    The transcription factor E74 is one of the early genes induced by ecdysteroids during metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we report the cloning and hormonal regulation of E74 from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (MsE74). MsE74 is 98% identical to that of D. melanogaster within the DNA-binding ETS domain of the protein. The 5’-isoform-specific regions of MsE74A and MsE74B share significantly lower sequence similarity (30-40%). Developmental expression by Northern blot analysis reveals that, during the 5th larval instar, MsE74B expression correlates with pupal commitment on day 3 and is induced to maximal levels within 12h by low levels of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and repressed by physiologically relevant levels of juvenile hormone I (JH I). Immunocytochemical analysis shows that MsE74B appears in the epidermis before the 20E-induced Broad transcription factor that is correlated with pupal commitment (Zhou and Riddiford, 2001). In contrast, MsE74A is expressed late in the larval and the pupal molts when the ecdysteroid titer has declined to low levels and in the adult molt just as the ecdysteroid titer begins to decline. This change in timing during the adult molt appears not to be due to the absence of JH as there was no change during the pupal molt of allatectomized animals. When either 4th or 5th instar larval epidermis was explanted and subjected to hormonal manipulations, MsE74A induction occurred only after exposure to 20E followed by its removal. Thus, MsE74B appears to have a similar role at the onset of metamorphosis in Manduca as it does in Drosophila, whereas MsE74A is regulated differently at pupation in Manduca than at pupariation in Drosophila.

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    Tjian Lab
    06/01/03 | Targeting genes and transcription factors to segregated nuclear compartments.
    Isogai Y, Tjian R
    Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 2003 Jun;15(3):296-303. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1100640108

    With increasingly detailed images of nuclear structures revealed by advanced microscopy, a remarkably compartmentalized cell nucleus has come into focus. Although this complex nuclear organization remains largely unexplored, some progress has been made in deciphering the functional aspects of various subnuclear structures, revealing how this elaborate framework can influence gene activation. Several recent studies have helped illustrate how cells might utilize the nuclear architecture as an additional level of transcriptional control, perhaps by targeting genes and regulatory factors to specific sites within the nucleus that are designated for active RNA synthesis.

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    05/01/03 | Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopic study of surface glass transition of poly(vinyl alcohol).
    Ji N
    Macromolecules. 2003 May;36:3303. doi: 10.1021/ma025681s

    Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy was employed to study surface glass transition of

    poly(vinyl alcohol) by monitoring the relaxation of rubbing-induced alignment of surface chains with

    increase of temperature. The observed chain relaxation is two-dimensional, parallel to the surface. The

    surface transition temperature is 58 ( 2 °C, essentially the same as the bulk one.

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    Magee Lab
    04/15/03 | Normalization of Ca2+ signals by small oblique dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons.
    Frick A, Magee J, Koester HJ, Migliore M, Johnston D
    The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2003 Apr 15;23(8):3243-50. doi: 10.1002/cbic.201000254

    Oblique dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons predominate in stratum radiatum and receive approximately 80% of the synaptic input from Schaffer collaterals. Despite this fact, most of our understanding of dendritic signal processing in these neurons comes from studies of the main apical dendrite. Using a combination of Ca2+ imaging and whole-cell recording techniques in rat hippocampal slices, we found that the properties of the oblique dendrites differ markedly from those of the main dendrites. These different properties tend to equalize the Ca2+ rise from single action potentials as they backpropagate into the oblique dendrites from the main trunk. Evidence suggests that this normalization of Ca2+ signals results from a higher density of a transient, A-type K+ current [I(K(A))] in the oblique versus the main dendrites. The higher density of I(K(A)) may have important implications for our understanding of synaptic integration and plasticity in these structures.

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    The developmental mechanisms that regulate the relative size and shape of organs have remained obscure despite almost a century of interest in the problem and the fact that changes in relative size represent the dominant mode of evolutionary change. Here, I investigate how the Hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx) instructs the legs on the third thoracic segment of Drosophila melanogaster to develop with a different size and shape from the legs on the second thoracic segment. Through loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments, I demonstrate that different segments of the leg, the femur and the first tarsal segment, and even different regions of the femur, regulate their size in response to Ubx expression through qualitatively different mechanisms. In some regions, Ubx acts autonomously to specify shape and size, whereas in other regions, Ubx influences size through nonautonomous mechanisms. Loss of Ubx autonomously reduces cell size in the T3 femur, but this reduction seems to be partially compensated by an increase in cell numbers, so that it is unclear what effect cell size and number directly have on femur size. Loss of Ubx has both autonomous and nonautonomous effects on cell number in different regions of the basitarsus, but again there is not a strong correlation between cell size or number and organ size. Total organ size appears to be regulated through mechanisms that operate at the level of the entire leg segment (femur or basitarsus) relatively independently of the behavior of individual subpopulations of cells within the segment.

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