Main Menu (Mobile)- Block

Main Menu - Block

janelia7_blocks-janelia7_fake_breadcrumb | block
Koyama Lab / Publications
custom | custom


facetapi-Q2b17qCsTdECvJIqZJgYMaGsr8vANl1n | block
facetapi-PV5lg7xuz68EAY8eakJzrcmwtdGEnxR0 | block
facetapi-021SKYQnqXW6ODq5W5dPAFEDBaEJubhN | block
general_search_page-panel_pane_1 | views_panes

92 Publications

Showing 11-20 of 92 results
Your Criteria:
    Cardona Lab
    11/01/06 | Early embryogenesis of planaria: a cryptic larva feeding on maternal resources.
    Cardona A, Hartenstein V, Romero R
    Development Genes & Evolution. 2006 Nov;216(11):667-81. doi: 10.1007/s00427-006-0094-3

    The early planarian embryo presents a complete ciliated epidermis and a pharynx and feeds on maternal yolk cells. In this paper, we report on all the elements involved in the formation of such an autonomous embryo, which we name cryptic larva. First, we provide a description of the spherical and fusiform yolk cells and their relationship with the blastomeres, from the laying of the egg capsule up to their final fate in mid embryonic stages. Then, we describe the early cleavage and the subsequent development of the tissues of the cryptic larva, namely, the primary epidermis, the embryonic pharynx, and a new cell type, the star cells. Finally, we discuss the possibility that the cryptic larva either constitutes a vestigial larva or, more likely, is the evolutionary result of the competition between multiple embryos for the limited and shared maternal resources in the egg capsule.

    View Publication Page
    11/01/06 | Physiological properties of zebra finch ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra pars compacta neurons.
    Gale SD, Perkel DJ
    Journal of Neurophysiology. 2006 Nov;96(5):2295-306. doi: 10.1152/jn.01040.2005

    The neurotransmitter dopamine plays important roles in motor control, learning, and motivation in mammals and probably other animals as well. The strong dopaminergic projection to striatal regions and more moderate dopaminergic projections to other regions of the telencephalon predominantly arise from midbrain dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Homologous dopaminergic cell groups in songbirds project anatomically in a manner that may allow dopamine to influence song learning or song production. The electrophysiological properties of SNc and VTA neurons have not previously been studied in birds. Here we used whole cell recordings in brain slices in combination with tyrosine-hydroxylase immunolabeling as a marker of dopaminergic neurons to determine electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of dopaminergic and nondopaminergic neurons in the zebra finch SNc and VTA. Our results show that zebra finch dopaminergic neurons possess physiological properties very similar to those of mammalian dopaminergic neurons, including broad action potentials, calcium- and apamin-sensitive membrane-potential oscillations underlying pacemaker firing, powerful spike-frequency adaptation, and autoinhibition via D2 dopamine receptors. Moreover, the zebra finch SNc and VTA also contain nondopaminergic neurons with similarities (fast-firing, inhibition by the mu-opioid receptor agonist [d-Ala(2), N-Me-Phe(4), Gly-ol(5)]-enkephalin (DAMGO)) and differences (strong h-current that contributes to spontaneous firing) compared with GABAergic neurons in the mammalian SNc and VTA. Our results provide insight into the intrinsic membrane properties that regulate the activity of dopaminergic neurons in songbirds and add to strong evidence for anatomical, physiological, and functional similarities between the dopaminergic systems of mammals and birds.

    View Publication Page
    11/01/06 | Role of thioredoxin in cell growth through interactions with signaling molecules.
    Yoshioka J, Schreiter ER, Lee RT
    Antioxidants and Redox Signaling. 2006 Nov-Dec;8(11-12):2143-51. doi: 10.1089/ars.2006.8.2143

    The thioredoxin system helps maintain a reducing environment in cells, but thioredoxin functions as more than simply an antioxidant. Thioredoxin functions depend on the protein's redox state, as determined by two conserved cysteines. Key biologic activities of thioredoxin include antioxidant, growth control, and antiapoptotic properties, resulting from interaction with target molecules including transcription factors. Mechanisms by which thioredoxin regulates cell growth include binding to signaling molecules such as apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK-1) and thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip). The molecular interplay between thioredoxin, ASK-1, and Txnip potentially influences cell growth and survival in diverse human diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. In this review, we focus on the structure of thioredoxin and its functional regulation of cell growth through the interactions with signaling molecules.

    View Publication Page
    Gonen Lab
    11/01/06 | The structure of aquaporins.
    Gonen T, Walz T
    Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics. 2006 Nov;39(4):361-96. doi: 10.1017/S0033583506004458

    The ubiquitous members of the aquaporin (AQP) family form transmembrane pores that are either exclusive for water (aquaporins) or are also permeable for other small neutral solutes such as glycerol (aquaglyceroporins). The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of our current knowledge of AQP structures and to describe the structural features that define the function of these membrane pores. The review will discuss the mechanisms governing water conduction, proton exclusion and substrate specificity, and how the pore permeability is regulated in different members of the AQP family.

    View Publication Page
    10/20/06 | Gradients of the Drosophila Chinmo BTB-zinc finger protein govern neuronal temporal identity.
    Zhu S, Lin S, Kao C, Awasaki T, Chiang A, Lee T
    Cell. 2006 Oct 20;127(2):409-22. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2006.08.045

    Many neural progenitors, including Drosophila mushroom body (MB) and projection neuron (PN) neuroblasts, sequentially give rise to different subtypes of neurons throughout development. We identified a novel BTB-zinc finger protein, named Chinmo (Chronologically inappropriate morphogenesis), that governs neuronal temporal identity during postembryonic development of the Drosophila brain. In both MB and PN lineages, loss of Chinmo autonomously causes early-born neurons to adopt the fates of late-born neurons from the same lineages. Interestingly, primarily due to a posttranscriptional control, MB neurons born at early developmental stages contain more abundant Chinmo than their later-born siblings. Further, the temporal identity of MB progeny can be transformed toward earlier or later fates by reducing or increasing Chinmo levels, respectively. Taken together, we suggest that a temporal gradient of Chinmo (Chinmo(high) –> Chinmo(low)) helps specify distinct birth order-dependent cell fates in an extended neuronal lineage.

    View Publication Page
    Zuker Lab
    10/12/06 | Transforming the architecture of compound eyes.
    Zelhof AC, Hardy RW, Becker A, Zuker CS
    Nature. 2006 Oct 12;443(7112):696-9. doi: 10.1038/nature05128

    Eyes differ markedly in the animal kingdom, and are an extreme example of the evolution of multiple anatomical solutions to light detection and image formation. A salient feature of all photoreceptor cells is the presence of a specialized compartment (disc outer segments in vertebrates, and microvillar rhabdomeres in insects), whose primary role is to accommodate the millions of light receptor molecules required for efficient photon collection. In insects, compound eyes can have very different inner architectures. Fruitflies and houseflies have an open rhabdom system, in which the seven rhabdomeres of each ommatidium are separated from each other and function as independent light guides. In contrast, bees and various mosquitoes and beetle species have a closed system, in which rhabdomeres within each ommatidium are fused to each other, thus sharing the same visual axis. To understand the transition between open and closed rhabdom systems, we isolated and characterized the role of Drosophila genes involved in rhabdomere assembly. Here we show that Spacemaker, a secreted protein expressed only in the eyes of insects with open rhabdom systems, acts together with Prominin and the cell adhesion molecule Chaoptin to choreograph the partitioning of rhabdomeres into an open system. Furthermore, the complete loss of spacemaker (spam) converts an open rhabdom system to a closed one, whereas its targeted expression to photoreceptors of a closed system markedly reorganizes the architecture of the compound eyes to resemble an open system. Our results provide a molecular atlas for the construction of microvillar assemblies and illustrate the critical effect of differences in a single structural protein in morphogenesis.

    View Publication Page
    10/06/06 | Distinct behavioral responses to ethanol are regulated by alternate RhoGAP18B isoforms.
    Rothenfluh A, Threlkeld RJ, Bainton RJ, Tsai LT, Lasek AW, Heberlein U
    Cell. 2006 Oct 6;127(1):199-211. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.010

    In most organisms, low ethanol doses induce increased activity, while high doses are sedating. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, we isolated Drosophila mutants with altered ethanol responsiveness. Mutations in white rabbit (whir), disrupting RhoGAP18B, are strongly resistant to the sedating effects of ethanol. This resistance can be suppressed by reducing the levels of Rho1 or Rac, implicating these GTPases in the behavioral response to ethanol. Indeed, expression of constitutively active forms of Rho1 or Rac1 in adult flies results in ethanol resistance similar to that observed in whir mutants. The whir locus produces several transcripts, RA-RD, which are predicted to encode three distinct RhoGAPs that share only the GAP domain. The RC transcript mediates the sedating effects of ethanol, while the RA transcript regulates its stimulant effects. Thus, distinct RhoGAPs, encoded by the same gene, regulate different manifestations of acute ethanol intoxication.

    View Publication Page
    10/06/06 | Increased ethanol resistance and consumption in Eps8 knockout mice correlates with altered actin dynamics.
    Offenhäuser N, Castelletti D, Mapelli L, Soppo BE, Regondi MC, Rossi P, D'Angelo E, Frassoni C, Amadeo A, Tocchetti A, Pozzi B, Disanza A, Guarnieri D, Betsholtz C, Scita G, Heberlein U, Di Fiore PP
    Cell. 2006 Oct 6;127(1):213-26. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.011

    Dynamic modulation of the actin cytoskeleton is critical for synaptic plasticity, abnormalities of which are thought to contribute to mental illness and addiction. Here we report that mice lacking Eps8, a regulator of actin dynamics, are resistant to some acute intoxicating effects of ethanol and show increased ethanol consumption. In the brain, the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a major target of ethanol. We show that Eps8 is localized to postsynaptic structures and is part of the NMDA receptor complex. Moreover, in Eps8 null mice, NMDA receptor currents and their sensitivity to inhibition by ethanol are abnormal. In addition, Eps8 null neurons are resistant to the actin-remodeling activities of NMDA and ethanol. We propose that proper regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is a key determinant of cellular and behavioral responses to ethanol.

    View Publication Page
    Riddiford Lab
    10/06/06 | MicroRNA pathways modulate polyglutamine-induced neurodegeneration.
    Bilen J, Liu N, Burnett BG, Pittman RN, Bonini NM
    Molecular Cell. 2006 Oct 6;24(1):157-63. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2006.07.030

    Nine human neurodegenerative diseases are due to expansion of a CAG repeat- encoding glutamine within the open reading frame of the respective genes. Polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion confers dominant toxicity, resulting in neuronal degeneration. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to modulate programmed cell death during development. To address whether miRNA pathways play a role in neurodegeneration, we tested whether genes critical for miRNA processing modulated toxicity induced by the spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) protein. These studies revealed a striking enhancement of polyQ toxicity upon reduction of miRNA processing in Drosophila and human cells. In parallel genetic screens, we identified the miRNA bantam (ban) as a potent modulator of both polyQ and tau toxicity in flies. Our studies suggest that ban functions downstream of toxicity of the SCA3 protein, to prevent degeneration. These findings indicate that miRNA pathways dramatically modulate polyQ- and tau-induced neurodegeneration, providing the foundation for new insight into therapeutics.

    View Publication Page
    10/03/06 | Compressed domain real-time action recognition.
    Yeo C, Ahammad P, Ramchandran K, Sastry S
    IEEE International Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing. 2006 Oct 3:

    We present a compressed domain scheme that is able to recognize and localize actions in real-time. The recognition problem is posed as performing a video query on a test video sequence. Our method is based on computing motion similarity using compressed domain features which can be extracted with low complexity. We introduce a novel motion correlation measure that takes into account differences in motion magnitudes. Our method is appearance invariant, requires no prior segmentation, alignment or stabilization, and is able to localize actions in both space and time. We evaluated our method on a large action video database consisting of 6 actions performed by 25 people under 3 different scenarios. Our classification results compare favorably with existing methods at only a fraction of their computational cost.

    View Publication Page