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5 Publications

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    04/21/07 | Comparative analysis of spatial patterns of gene expression in Drosophila Melanogaster imaginal discs.
    Harmon C, Ahammad P, Hammonds AS, Weiszmann R, Celniker SE, Sastry S, Rubin GM
    International Conference on Research in Computational Molecular Biology. 2007 Apr 21:

    Determining the precise spatial extent of expression of genes across different tissues, along with knowledge of the biochemical function of the genes is critical for understanding the roles of various genes in the development of metazoan organisms. To address this problem, we have developed high-throughput methods for generating images of gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster imaginal discs and for the automated analysis of these images. Our method automatically learns tissue shapes from a small number of manually segmented training examples and automatically aligns, extracts and scores new images, which are analyzed to generate gene expression maps for each gene. We have developed a reverse lookup procedure that enables us to identify genes that have spatial expression patterns most similar to a given gene of interest. Our methods enable us to cluster both the genes and the pixels that of the maps, thereby identifying sets of genes that have similar patterns, and regions of the tissues of interest that have similar gene expression profiles across a large number of genes.

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    01/01/07 | Global analyses of mRNA translational control during early Drosophila embryogenesis.
    Qin X, Ahn S, Speed TP, Rubin GM
    Genome Biology. 2007;8(4):R63. doi: 10.1186/gb-2007-8-4-r63

    BACKGROUND: In many animals, the first few hours of life proceed with little or no transcription, and developmental regulation at these early stages is dependent on maternal cytoplasm rather than the zygotic nucleus. Translational control is critical for early Drosophila embryogenesis and is exerted mainly at the gene level. To understand post-transcriptional regulation during Drosophila early embryonic development, we used sucrose polysomal gradient analyses and GeneChip analysis to illustrate the translation profile of individual mRNAs. RESULTS: We determined ribosomal density and ribosomal occupancy of over 10,000 transcripts during the first ten hours after egg laying. CONCLUSION: We report the extent and general nature of gene regulation at the translational level during early Drosophila embryogenesis on a genome-wide basis. The diversity of the translation profiles indicates multiple mechanisms modulating transcript-specific translation. Cluster analyses suggest that the genes involved in some biological processes are co-regulated at the translational level at certain developmental stages.

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    06/20/05 | Joint nonparametric alignment for analyzing spatial gene expression patterns of Drosophila imaginal discs.
    Ahammad P, Harmon C, Hammonds AS, Sastry S, Rubin GM
    IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. 2005 Jun 20;2:755-60

    To compare spatial patterns of gene expression, one must analyze a large number of images as current methods are only able to measure a small number of genes at a time. Bringing images of corresponding tissues into alignment is a critical first step in making a meaningful comparative analysis of these spatial patterns. Significant image noise and variability in the shapes make it hard to pick a canonical shape model. In this paper, we address these problems by combining segmentation and unsupervised shape learning algorithms. We first segment images to acquire structures of interest, then jointly align the shapes of these acquired structures using an unsupervised nonparametric maximum likelihood algorithm along the lines of congealing, while simultaneously learning the underlying shape model and associated transformations. The learned transformations are applied to corresponding images to bring them into alignment in one step. We demonstrate the results for images of various classes of Drosophila imaginal discs and discuss the methodology used for a quantitative analysis of spatial gene expression patterns.

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    03/24/00 | A whole-genome assembly of Drosophila.
    Myers EW, Sutton GG, Delcher AL, Dew IM, Fasulo DP, Flanigan MJ, Kravitz SA, Mobarry CM, Reinert KH, Remington KA, Anson EL, Bolanos RA, Chou HH, Jordan CM, Halpern AL, Lonardi S, Beasley EM, Brandon RC, Chen L, Dunn PJ, Lai Z, Liang Y, Nusskern DR, Zhan M, Zhang Q, Zheng X, Rubin GM, Adams MD, Venter JC
    Science. 2000 Mar 24;287(5461):2196-204

    We report on the quality of a whole-genome assembly of Drosophila melanogaster and the nature of the computer algorithms that accomplished it. Three independent external data sources essentially agree with and support the assembly’s sequence and ordering of contigs across the euchromatic portion of the genome. In addition, there are isolated contigs that we believe represent nonrepetitive pockets within the heterochromatin of the centromeres. Comparison with a previously sequenced 2.9- megabase region indicates that sequencing accuracy within nonrepetitive segments is greater than 99. 99% without manual curation. As such, this initial reconstruction of the Drosophila sequence should be of substantial value to the scientific community.

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    09/01/98 | The Drosophila genome project: a progress report.
    Rubin GM
    Trends in Genetics. 1998 Sep;14(9):340-3