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130 Publications

Showing 31-40 of 130 results
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    Svoboda Lab
    01/17/19 | NWB:N 2.0: An accessible data standard for neurophysiology.
    Rubel O, Tritt A, Dichter B, Braun T, Cain N, Clack NG, Davidson TJ, Dougherty M, Fillion-Rubin J, Graddis N, Grauer M, Kiggins JT, Niu L, Ozturk D, Schroeder W, Soltesz I, Sommer FT, Svoboda K, Ng L, et al
    bioRxiv. 2019 Jan 17:. doi: 10.1101/523035

    Neurodata Without Borders: Neurophysiology (NWB:N) is a data standard for neurophysiology, providing neuroscientists with a common standard to share, archive, use, and build common analysis tools for neurophysiology data. With NWB:N version 2.0 (NWB:N 2.0) we made significant advances towards creating a usable standard, software ecosystem, and vibrant community for standardizing neurophysiology data. In this manuscript we focus in particular on the NWB:N data standard schema and present advances towards creating an accessible data standard for neurophysiology.

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    Svoboda LabDruckmann LabScientific Computing Software
    01/15/19 | An orderly single-trial organization of population dynamics in premotor cortex predicts behavioral variability.
    Wei Z, Inagaki H, Li N, Svoboda K, Druckmann S
    Nature Communications. 2019 Jan 15;10(1):216. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-08141-6

    Animals are not simple input-output machines. Their responses to even very similar stimuli are variable. A key, long-standing question in neuroscience is to understand the neural correlates of such behavioral variability. To reveal these correlates, behavior and neural population activity must be related to one another on single trials. Such analysis is challenging due to the dynamical nature of brain function (e.g., in decision making), heterogeneity across neurons and limited sampling of the relevant neural population. By analyzing population recordings from mouse frontal cortex in perceptual decision-making tasks, we show that an analysis approach tailored to the coarse grain features of the dynamics is able to reveal previously unrecognized structure in the organization of population activity. This structure is similar on error and correct trials, suggesting dynamics that may be constrained by the underlying circuitry, is able to predict multiple aspects of behavioral variability and reveals long time-scale modulation of population activity.

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    Svoboda Lab
    11/23/18 | Paring down to the essentials.
    Wang T
    Science (New York, N.Y.). 2018 Nov 23;362(6417):904. doi: 10.1126/science.aav6872
    Looger LabSvoboda LabMouseLightQuantitative Genomics
    10/31/18 | Distinct descending motor cortex pathways and their roles in movement.
    Economo MN, Viswanathan S, Tasic B, Bas E, Winnubst J, Menon V, Graybuck LT, Nguyen TN, Smith KA, Yao Z, Wang L, Gerfen CR, Chandrashekar J, Zeng H, Looger LL, Svoboda K
    Nature. 2018 Nov;563(7729):79-84. doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0642-9

    Activity in the motor cortex predicts movements, seconds before they are initiated. This preparatory activity has been observed across cortical layers, including in descending pyramidal tract neurons in layer 5. A key question is how preparatory activity is maintained without causing movement, and is ultimately converted to a motor command to trigger appropriate movements. Here, using single-cell transcriptional profiling and axonal reconstructions, we identify two types of pyramidal tract neuron. Both types project to several targets in the basal ganglia and brainstem. One type projects to thalamic regions that connect back to motor cortex; populations of these neurons produced early preparatory activity that persisted until the movement was initiated. The second type projects to motor centres in the medulla and mainly produced late preparatory activity and motor commands. These results indicate that two types of motor cortex output neurons have specialized roles in motor control.

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    Looger LabSvoboda Lab
    10/31/18 | Shared and distinct transcriptomic cell types across neocortical areas.
    Tasic B, Yao Z, Graybuck LT, Smith KA, Nguyen TN, Bertagnolli D, Goldy J, Garren E, Economo MN, Viswanathan S, Penn O, Bakken T, Menon V, Miller J, Fong O, Hirokawa KE, Lathia K, Rimorin C, Tieu M, Larsen R, Casper T, Barkan E, Kroll M, Parry S, Shapovalova NV, Hirschstein D, Pendergraft J, Sullivan HA, Kim TK, Szafer A, Dee N, Groblewski P, Wickersham I, Cetin A, Harris JA, Levi BP, Sunkin SM, Madisen L, Daigle TL, Looger L, Bernard A, Phillips J, Lein E, Hawrylycz M, Svoboda K, Jones AR, Koch C, Zeng H
    Nature. 2018 Nov;563(7729):72-78. doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0654-5

    The neocortex contains a multitude of cell types that are segregated into layers and functionally distinct areas. To investigate the diversity of cell types across the mouse neocortex, here we analysed 23,822 cells from two areas at distant poles of the mouse neocortex: the primary visual cortex and the anterior lateral motor cortex. We define 133 transcriptomic cell types by deep, single-cell RNA sequencing. Nearly all types of GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)-containing neurons are shared across both areas, whereas most types of glutamatergic neurons were found in one of the two areas. By combining single-cell RNA sequencing and retrograde labelling, we match transcriptomic types of glutamatergic neurons to their long-range projection specificity. Our study establishes a combined transcriptomic and projectional taxonomy of cortical cell types from functionally distinct areas of the adult mouse cortex.

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    Svoboda Lab
    10/17/18 | A cortico-cerebellar loop for motor planning.
    Gao Z, Davis C, Thomas AM, Economo MN, Abrego AM, Svoboda K, De Zeeuw CI, Li N
    Nature. 2018 Oct 17;563:113-6. doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0633-x

    Persistent and ramping neural activity in the frontal cortex anticipates specific movements. Preparatory activity is distributed across several brain regions, but it is unclear which brain areas are involved and how this activity is mediated by multi-regional interactions. The cerebellum is thought to be primarily involved in the short-timescale control of movement; however, roles for this structure in cognitive processes have also been proposed. In humans, cerebellar damage can cause defects in planning and working memory. Here we show that persistent representation of information in the frontal cortex during motor planning is dependent on the cerebellum. Mice performed a sensory discrimination task in which they used short-term memory to plan a future directional movement. A transient perturbation in the medial deep cerebellar nucleus (fastigial nucleus) disrupted subsequent correct responses without hampering movement execution. Preparatory activity was observed in both the frontal cortex and the cerebellar nuclei, seconds before the onset of movement. The silencing of frontal cortex activity abolished preparatory activity in the cerebellar nuclei, and fastigial activity was necessary to maintain cortical preparatory activity. Fastigial output selectively targeted the behaviourally relevant part of the frontal cortex through the thalamus, thus closing a cortico-cerebellar loop. Our results support the view that persistent neural dynamics during motor planning is maintained by neural circuits that span multiple brain regions, and that cerebellar computations extend beyond online motor control.

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    10/11/18 | Thy1 transgenic mice expressing the red fluorescent calcium indicator jRGECO1a for neuronal population imaging in vivo.
    Dana H, Novak O, Guardado-Montesino M, Fransen JW, Hu A, Borghuis BG, Guo C, Kim DS, Svoboda K
    PloS One. 2018;13(10):e0205444. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0205444

    Calcium imaging is commonly used to measure the neural activity of large groups of neurons in mice. Genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) can be delivered for this purpose using non-invasive genetic methods. Compared to viral gene transfer, transgenic targeting of GECIs provides stable long-term expression and obviates the need for invasive viral injections. Transgenic mice expressing the green GECI GCaMP6 are already widely used. Here we present the generation and characterization of transgenic mice expressing the sensitive red GECI jRGECO1a, driven by the Thy1 promoter. Four transgenic lines with different expression patterns showed sufficiently high expression for cellular in vivo imaging. We used two-photon microscopy to characterize visual responses of individual neurons in the visual cortex in vivo. The signal-to-noise ratio in transgenic mice was comparable to, or better than, mice transduced with adeno-associated virus. In addition, we show that Thy1-jRGECO1a transgenic mice are useful for transcranial population imaging and functional mapping using widefield fluorescence microscopy. We also demonstrate imaging of visual responses in retinal ganglion cells in vitro. Thy1-jRGECO1a transgenic mice are therefore a useful addition to the toolbox for imaging activity in intact neural networks.

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    10/03/18 | High-performance GFP-based calcium indicators for imaging activity in neuronal populations and microcompartments.
    Dana H, Sun Y, Mohar B, Hulse B, Hasseman JP, Tsegaye G, Tsang A, Wong A, Patel R, Macklin JJ, Chen Y, Konnerth A, Jayaraman V, Looger LL, Schreiter ER, Svoboda K, Kim DS
    bioRxiv. 2018 Oct 3:. doi: 10.1101/434589

    Calcium imaging with genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) is routinely used to measure neural activity in intact nervous systems. GECIs are frequently used in one of two different modes: to track activity in large populations of neuronal cell bodies, or to follow dynamics in subcellular compartments such as axons, dendrites and individual synaptic compartments. Despite major advances, calcium imaging is still limited by the biophysical properties of existing GECIs, including affinity, signal-to-noise ratio, rise and decay kinetics, and dynamic range. Using structure-guided mutagenesis and neuron-based screening, we optimized the green fluorescent protein-based GECI GCaMP6 for different modes of in vivo imaging. The jGCaMP7 sensors provide improved detection of individual spikes (jGCaMP7s,f), imaging in neurites and neuropil (jGCaMP7b), and tracking large populations of neurons using 2-photon (jGCaMP7s,f) or wide-field (jGCaMP7c) imaging.

     

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    Svoboda Lab
    08/24/18 | Anterolateral motor cortex connects with a medial subdivision of ventromedial thalamus through cell-type-specific circuits, forming an excitatory thalamo-cortico-thalamic loop via layer 1 apical tuft dendrites of layer 5B pyramidal tract type neurons.
    Guo K, Yamawaki N, Svoboda K, Shepherd GM
    The Journal of Neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2018 Aug 24;38(41):8787-97. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1333-18.2018

    The anterolateral motor cortex (ALM) and ventromedial (VM) thalamus are functionally linked to support persistent activity during motor planning. We analyzed the underlying synaptic interconnections using optogenetics and electrophysiology in mice (♀/♂). In cortex, thalamocortical (TC) axons from VM excited VM-projecting pyramidal-tract (PT) neurons in layer 5B of ALM. These axons also strongly excited layer 2/3 neurons (which strongly excite PT neurons, as previously shown) but not VM-projecting corticothalamic (CT) neurons in layer 6. The strongest connections in the VM→PT circuit were localized to apical-tuft dendrites of PT neurons, in layer 1. These tuft inputs were selectively augmented after blocking hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels. In thalamus, axons from ALM PT neurons excited ALM-projecting VM neurons, located medially in VM. These axons provided weak input to neurons in mediodorsal nucleus, and little or no input either to neurons in the GABAergic reticular thalamic nucleus or to neurons in VM projecting to primary motor cortex (M1). Conversely, M1 PT axons excited M1- but not ALM-projecting VM neurons. Our findings indicate, first, a set of cell-type-specific connections forming an excitatory thalamo-cortico-thalamic (T-C-T) loop for ALM↔VM communication and a circuit-level substrate for supporting reverberant activity in this system. Second, a key feature of this loop is the prominent involvement of layer 1 synapses onto apical dendrites, a subcellular compartment with distinct signaling properties, including HCN-mediated gain control. Third, the segregation of the ALM↔VM loop from M1-related circuits of VM adds cellular-level support for the concept of parallel pathway organization in the motor system.Anterolateral motor cortex (ALM), a higher-order motor area in the mouse, and ventromedial thalamus (VM) are anatomically and functionally linked, but their synaptic interconnections at the cellular level are unknown. Our results show that ALM pyramidal tract neurons monosynaptically excite ALM-projecting thalamocortical neurons in a medial subdivision of VM, and vice versa. The thalamo-cortico-thalamic loop formed by these recurrent connections constitutes a circuit-level substrate for supporting reverberant activity in this system.

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    Svoboda Lab
    06/04/18 | Motor control: three-dimensional metric of head movements in the mouse brain.
    Finkelstein A
    Current Biology : CB. 2018 Jun 04;28(11):R660-R662. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2018.04.079

    Many forms of human and animal behavior involve head movements. A new study reveals the neural code for three-dimensional head movements in the midbrain of freely moving mice.

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