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143 Publications

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    11/05/14 | Flat clathrin lattices: stable features of the plasma membrane.
    Grove J, Metcalf DJ, Knight AE, Wavre-Shapton ST, Sun T, Protonotarios ED, Griffin LD, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Marsh M
    Molecular biology of the cell. 2014 Nov 5;25(22):3581-94. doi: 10.1091/mbc.E14-06-1154

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is a fundamental property of eukaryotic cells. Classical CME proceeds via the formation of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) at the plasma membrane, which invaginate to form clathrin-coated vesicles, a process that is well understood. However, clathrin also assembles into flat clathrin lattices (FCLs); these structures remain poorly described, and their contribution to cell biology is unclear. We used quantitative imaging to provide the first comprehensive description of FCLs and explore their influence on plasma membrane organization. Ultrastructural analysis by electron and superresolution microscopy revealed two discrete populations of clathrin structures. CCPs were typified by their sphericity, small size, and homogeneity. FCLs were planar, large, and heterogeneous and present on both the dorsal and ventral surfaces of cells. Live microscopy demonstrated that CCPs are short lived and culminate in a peak of dynamin recruitment, consistent with classical CME. In contrast, FCLs were long lived, with sustained association with dynamin. We investigated the biological relevance of FCLs using the chemokine receptor CCR5 as a model system. Agonist activation leads to sustained recruitment of CCR5 to FCLs. Quantitative molecular imaging indicated that FCLs partitioned receptors at the cell surface. Our observations suggest that FCLs provide stable platforms for the recruitment of endocytic cargo.

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    11/05/14 | Quantitative cell biology: transforming the conceptual, theoretical, instrumental, and methodological approaches to cell biology.
    Lippincott-Schwartz J
    Molecular biology of the cell. 2014 Nov 5;25(22):3437. doi: 10.1091/mbc.E14-08-1297
    08/14/14 | Probing the stochastic, motor-driven properties of the cytoplasm using force spectrum microscopy.
    Guo M, Ehrlicher AJ, Jensen MH, Renz M, Moore JR, Goldman RD, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Mackintosh FC, Weitz DA
    Cell. 2014 Aug 14;158(4):822-32. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2014.06.051

    Molecular motors in cells typically produce highly directed motion; however, the aggregate, incoherent effect of all active processes also creates randomly fluctuating forces, which drive diffusive-like, nonthermal motion. Here, we introduce force-spectrum-microscopy (FSM) to directly quantify random forces within the cytoplasm of cells and thereby probe stochastic motor activity. This technique combines measurements of the random motion of probe particles with independent micromechanical measurements of the cytoplasm to quantify the spectrum of force fluctuations. Using FSM, we show that force fluctuations substantially enhance intracellular movement of small and large components. The fluctuations are three times larger in malignant cells than in their benign counterparts. We further demonstrate that vimentin acts globally to anchor organelles against randomly fluctuating forces in the cytoplasm, with no effect on their magnitude. Thus, FSM has broad applications for understanding the cytoplasm and its intracellular processes in relation to cell physiology in healthy and diseased states.

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    07/31/14 | ER stress-induced clearance of misfolded GPI-anchored proteins via the secretory pathway.
    Satpute-Krishnan P, Ajinkya M, Bhat S, Itakura E, Hegde RS, Lippincott-Schwartz J
    Cell. 2014 Jul 31;158(3):522-33. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2014.06.026

    Proteins destined for the cell surface are first assessed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for proper folding before release into the secretory pathway. This ensures that defective proteins are normally prevented from entering the extracellular environment, where they could be disruptive. Here, we report that, when ER folding capacity is saturated during stress, misfolded glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins dissociate from resident ER chaperones, engage export receptors, and quantitatively leave the ER via vesicular transport to the Golgi. Clearance from the ER commences within minutes of acute ER stress, before the transcriptional component of the unfolded protein response is activated. These aberrant proteins then access the cell surface transiently before destruction in lysosomes. Inhibiting this stress-induced pathway by depleting the ER-export receptors leads to aggregation of the ER-retained misfolded protein. Thus, this rapid response alleviates the elevated burden of misfolded proteins in the ER at the onset of ER stress, promoting protein homeostasis in the ER.

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    07/01/14 | MicroRNA binding to the HIV-1 Gag protein inhibits Gag assembly and virus production.
    Chen AK, Sengupta P, Waki K, Van Engelenburg SB, Ochiya T, Ablan SD, Freed EO, Lippincott-Schwartz J
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2014 Jul 1;111(26):E2676-83. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1408037111

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, 18-22 nt long, noncoding RNAs that act as potent negative gene regulators in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. To repress gene expression, miRNAs are packaged into RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) that target mRNAs for degradation and/or translational repression in a sequence-specific manner. Recently, miRNAs have been shown to also interact with proteins outside RISCs, impacting cellular processes through mechanisms not involving gene silencing. Here, we define a previously unappreciated activity of miRNAs in inhibiting RNA-protein interactions that in the context of HIV-1 biology blocks HIV virus budding and reduces virus infectivity. This occurs by miRNA binding to the nucleocapsid domain of the Gag protein, the main structural component of HIV-1 virions. The resulting miRNA-Gag complexes interfere with viral-RNA-mediated Gag assembly and viral budding at the plasma membrane, with imperfectly assembled Gag complexes endocytosed and delivered to lysosomes. The blockade of virus production by miRNA is reversed by adding the miRNA's target mRNA and stimulated by depleting Argonaute-2, suggesting that when miRNAs are not mediating gene silencing, they can block HIV-1 production through disruption of Gag assembly on membranes. Overall, our findings have significant implications for understanding how cells modulate HIV-1 infection by miRNA expression and raise the possibility that miRNAs can function to disrupt RNA-mediated protein assembly processes in other cellular contexts.

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    04/07/14 | A contractile and counterbalancing adhesion system controls the 3D shape of crawling cells.
    Burnette DT, Shao L, Ott C, Pasapera AM, Fischer RS, Baird MA, Der Loughian C, Delanoe-Ayari H, Paszek MJ, Davidson MW, Betzig E, Lippincott-Schwartz J
    The Journal of cell biology. 2014 Apr 14;205(1):83-96. doi: 10.1083/jcb.201311104

    How adherent and contractile systems coordinate to promote cell shape changes is unclear. Here, we define a counterbalanced adhesion/contraction model for cell shape control. Live-cell microscopy data showed a crucial role for a contractile meshwork at the top of the cell, which is composed of actin arcs and myosin IIA filaments. The contractile actin meshwork is organized like muscle sarcomeres, with repeating myosin II filaments separated by the actin bundling protein α-actinin, and is mechanically coupled to noncontractile dorsal actin fibers that run from top to bottom in the cell. When the meshwork contracts, it pulls the dorsal fibers away from the substrate. This pulling force is counterbalanced by the dorsal fibers' attachment to focal adhesions, causing the fibers to bend downward and flattening the cell. This model is likely to be relevant for understanding how cells configure themselves to complex surfaces, protrude into tight spaces, and generate three-dimensional forces on the growth substrate under both healthy and diseased conditions.

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    03/18/14 | LKB1/AMPK and PKA control ABCB11 trafficking and polarization in hepatocytes.
    Homolya L, Fu D, Sengupta P, Jarnik M, Gillet J, Vitale-Cross L, Gutkind JS, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Arias IM
    PloS one. 2014;9(3):e91921. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091921

    Polarization of hepatocytes is manifested by bile canalicular network formation and activation of LKB1 and AMPK, which control cellular energy metabolism. The bile acid, taurocholate, also regulates development of the canalicular network through activation of AMPK. In the present study, we used collagen sandwich hepatocyte cultures from control and liver-specific LKB1 knockout mice to examine the role of LKB1 in trafficking of ABCB11, the canalicular bile acid transporter. In polarized hepatocytes, ABCB11 traffics from Golgi to the apical plasma membrane and endogenously cycles through the rab 11a-myosin Vb recycling endosomal system. LKB1 knockout mice were jaundiced, lost weight and manifested impaired bile canalicular formation and intracellular trafficking of ABCB11, and died within three weeks. Using live cell imaging, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), particle tracking, and biochemistry, we found that LKB1 activity is required for microtubule-dependent trafficking of ABCB11 to the canalicular membrane. In control hepatocytes, ABCB11 trafficking was accelerated by taurocholate and cAMP; however, in LKB1 knockout hepatocytes, ABCB11 trafficking to the apical membrane was greatly reduced and restored only by cAMP, but not taurocholate. cAMP acted through a PKA-mediated pathway which did not activate AMPK. Our studies establish a regulatory role for LKB1 in ABCB11 trafficking to the canalicular membrane, hepatocyte polarization, and canalicular network formation.

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    02/07/14 | Distribution of ESCRT machinery at HIV assembly sites reveals virus scaffolding of ESCRT subunits.
    Van Engelenburg SB, Shtengel G, Sengupta P, Waki K, Jarnik M, Ablan SD, Freed EO, Hess HF, Lippincott-Schwartz J
    Science (New York, N.Y.). 2014 Feb 7;343(6171):653-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1247786

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) hijacks the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) to mediate virus release from infected cells. The nanoscale organization of ESCRT machinery necessary for mediating viral abscission is unclear. Here, we applied three-dimensional superresolution microscopy and correlative electron microscopy to delineate the organization of ESCRT components at HIV assembly sites. We observed ESCRT subunits localized within the head of budding virions and released particles, with head-localized levels of CHMP2A decreasing relative to Tsg101 and CHMP4B upon virus abscission. Thus, the driving force for HIV release may derive from initial scaffolding of ESCRT subunits within the viral bud interior followed by plasma membrane association and selective remodeling of ESCRT subunits.

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    01/13/14 | Superresolution imaging of biological systems using photoactivated localization microscopy.
    Sengupta P, Van Engelenburg SB, Lippincott-Schwartz J
    Chemical reviews. 2014 Mar 26;114(6):3189-202. doi: 10.1021/cr400614m
    12/09/13 | Increased mitochondrial fusion and autophagy help isolated hepatocytes repolarize in collagen sandwich cultures.
    Fu D, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Arias IM
    Autophagy. 2013 Dec;9(12):2154-5. doi: 10.4161/auto.26167

    Freshly isolated, depolarized rat hepatocytes can repolarize into bile canalicular networks when plated in collagen sandwich cultures. We studied the events underlying this repolarization process, focusing on how hepatocytes restore ATP synthesis and resupply biosynthetic precursors after the stress of being isolated from liver. We found that soon after being plated in collagen sandwich cultures, hepatocytes converted their mitochondria into highly fused networks. This occurred through a combination of upregulation of mitochondrial fusion proteins and downregulation of a mitochondrial fission protein. Mitochondria also became more active for oxidative phosphorylation, leading to overall increased ATP levels within cells. We further observed that autophagy was upregulated in the repolarizing hepatocytes. Boosted autophagy levels likely served to recycle cellular precursors, supplying building blocks for repolarization. Repolarizing hepatocytes also extensively degraded lipid droplets, whose fatty acids provide precursors for ?-oxidation to fuel oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. Thus, through coordination of mitochondrial fusion, autophagy, and lipid droplet consumption, depolarized hepatocytes are able to boost ATP synthesis and biosynthetic precursors to efficiently repolarize in collagen sandwich cultures.

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