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1416 Publications

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    04/24/01 | Conversion of a maltose receptor into a zinc biosensor by computational design.
    Marvin JS, Hellinga HW
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2001 Apr 24;98(9):4955-60. doi: 10.1073/pnas.091083898

    We have demonstrated that it is possible to radically change the specificity of maltose binding protein by converting it into a zinc sensor using a rational design approach. In this new molecular sensor, zinc binding is transduced into a readily detected fluorescence signal by use of an engineered conformational coupling mechanism linking ligand binding to reporter group response. An iterative progressive design strategy led to the construction of variants with increased zinc affinity by combining binding sites, optimizing the primary coordination sphere, and exploiting conformational equilibria. Intermediates in the design series show that the adaptive process involves both introduction and optimization of new functions and removal of adverse vestigial interactions. The latter demonstrates the importance of the rational design approach in uncovering cryptic phenomena in protein function, which cannot be revealed by the study of naturally evolved systems.

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    04/19/01 | The concepts of ’sameness’ and ’difference’ in an insect.
    Giurfa M, Zhang S, Jenett A, Menzel R, Srinivasan MV
    Nature. 2001 Apr 19;410(6831):930-3. doi: 10.1038/35073582

    Insects process and learn information flexibly to adapt to their environment. The honeybee Apis mellifera constitutes a traditional model for studying learning and memory at behavioural, cellular and molecular levels. Earlier studies focused on elementary associative and non-associative forms of learning determined by either olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex or the learning of visual stimuli in an operant context. However, research has indicated that bees are capable of cognitive performances that were thought to occur only in some vertebrate species. For example, honeybees can interpolate visual information, exhibit associative recall, categorize visual information and learn contextual information. Here we show that honeybees can form ’sameness’ and ’difference’ concepts. They learn to solve ’delayed matching-to-sample’ tasks, in which they are required to respond to a matching stimulus, and ’delayed non-matching-to-sample’ tasks, in which they are required to respond to a different stimulus; they can also transfer the learned rules to new stimuli of the same or a different sensory modality. Thus, not only can bees learn specific objects and their physical parameters, but they can also master abstract inter-relationships, such as sameness and difference.

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    Baker Lab
    04/06/01 | Are complex behaviors specified by dedicated regularoty genes? Reasoning from Drosophila.
    Baker B, Taylor B, Hall JC
    Cell. 2001 Apr 6;105(1):13-24
    03/15/01 | Malaria enhances expression of CC chemokine receptor 5 on placental macrophages.
    Tkachuk AN, Moormann AM, Poore JA, Rochford RA, Chensue SW, Mwapasa V, Meshnick SR
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2001 Mar 15;183(6):967-72. doi: 10.1086/319248

    Malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfections are common in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. The current study shows that placentas of malaria-infected women contain 3 times as much CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) RNA as placentas of women without malaria. By immunohistochemistry, CCR5(+) maternal macrophages were seen in placentas from malaria-infected women but not in placentas from malaria-uninfected women. In addition, CCR5 also was found on fetal Hofbauer cells in placentas from both groups. Thus, malaria infections increase the potential reservoir for HIV in the placenta by increasing the number of HIV target cells.

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    Zuker Lab
    03/09/01 | A chemosensory gene family encoding candidate gustatory and olfactory receptors in Drosophila.
    Scott K, Brady R, Cravchik A, Morozov P, Rzhetsky A, Zuker C, Axel R
    Cell. 2001 Mar 9;104(5):661-73

    A novel family of candidate gustatory receptors (GRs) was recently identified in searches of the Drosophila genome. We have performed in situ hybridization and transgene experiments that reveal expression of these genes in both gustatory and olfactory neurons in adult flies and larvae. This gene family is likely to encode both odorant and taste receptors. We have visualized the projections of chemosensory neurons in the larval brain and observe that neurons expressing different GRs project to discrete loci in the antennal lobe and subesophageal ganglion. These data provide insight into the diversity of chemosensory recognition and an initial view of the representation of gustatory information in the fly brain.

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    Riddiford Lab
    03/01/01 | Hormonal regulation and patterning of the broad-complex in the epidermis and wing discs of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta.
    Zhou B, Riddiford LM
    Developmental Biology. 2001 Mar 1;231(1):125-37. doi: 10.1006/dbio.2000.0143

    Expression of Manduca Broad-Complex (BR-C) mRNA in the larval epidermis is under the dual control of ecdysone and juvenile hormone (JH). Immunocytochemistry with antibodies that recognize the core, Z2, and Z4 domains of Manduca BR-C proteins showed that BR-C appearance not only temporally correlates with pupal commitment of the epidermis on day 3 of the fifth (final) larval instar, but also occurs in a strict spatial pattern within the abdominal segment similar to that seen for the loss of sensitivity to JH. Levels of Z2 and Z4 BR-C proteins shift with Z2 predominating at pupal commitment and Z4 dominant during early pupal cuticle synthesis. Both induction of BR-C mRNA in the epidermis by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and its suppression by JH were shown to be independent of new protein synthesis. For suppression JH must be present during the initial exposure to 20E. When JH was given 6 h after 20E, suppression was only seen in those regions that had not yet expressed BR-C. In the wing discs BR-C was first detected earlier 1.5 days after ecdysis, coincident with the pupal commitment of the wing. Our findings suggest that BR-C expression is one of the first molecular events underlying pupal commitment of both epidermis and wing discs.

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    03/01/01 | Neural network partitioning by NO and cGMP.
    Scholz NL, de Vente J, Truman JW, Graubard K
    The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2001 Mar 1;21(5):1610-8

    The stomatogastric ganglion (STG) of the crab Cancer productus contains approximately 30 neurons arrayed into two different networks (gastric mill and pyloric), each of which produces a distinct motor pattern in vitro. Here we show that the functional division of the STG into these two networks requires intact NO-cGMP signaling. Multiple nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like proteins are expressed in the stomatogastric nervous system, and NO appears to be released as an orthograde transmitter from descending inputs to the STG. The receptor of NO, a soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), is expressed in a subset of neurons in both motor networks. When NO diffusion or sGC activation are blocked within the ganglion, the two networks combine into a single conjoint circuit. The gastric mill motor rhythm breaks down, and several gastric neurons pattern switch and begin firing in pyloric time. The functional reorganization of the STG is both rapid and reversible, and the gastric mill motor rhythm is restored when the ganglion is returned to normal saline. Finally, pharmacological manipulations of the NO-cGMP pathway are ineffective when descending modulatory inputs to the STG are blocked. This suggests that the NO-cGMP pathway may interact with other biochemical cascades to partition rhythmic motor output from the ganglion.

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    Sternson Lab
    02/28/01 | Split--pool synthesis of 1,3-dioxanes leading to arrayed stock solutions of single compounds sufficient for multiple phenotypic and protein-binding assays.
    Sternson SM, Louca JB, Wong JC, Schreiber SL
    Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2001 Feb 28;123(8):1740-7

    Diversity-oriented organic synthesis offers the promise of advancing chemical genetics, where small molecules are used to explore biology. While the split--pool synthetic method is theoretically the most effective approach for the production of large collections of small molecules, it has not been widely adopted due to numerous technical and analytical hurdles. We have developed a split--pool synthesis leading to an array of stock solutions of single 1,3-dioxanes. The quantities of compounds are sufficient for hundreds of phenotypic and protein-binding assays. The average concentration of these stock solutions derived from a single synthesis bead was determined to be 5.4 mM in 5 microL of DMSO. A mass spectrometric strategy to identify the structure of molecules from a split--pool synthesis was shown to be highly accurate. Individual members of the 1,3-dioxane library have activity in a variety of phenotypic and protein-binding assays. The procedure developed in this study allows many assays to be performed with compounds derived from individual synthesis beads. The synthetic compounds identified in these assays should serve as useful probes of cellular and organismal processes.

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    02/16/01 | The sequence of the human genome.
    Venter JC, Adams MD, Myers EW, Li PW, Mural RJ, Sutton GG, Smith HO, Yandell M, Evans CA, Holt RA, Gocayne JD, Amanatides P, Ballew RM, Huson DH, Wortman JR, Zhang Q, Kodira CD, Zheng XH, Chen L, Skupski M, Subramanian G, Thomas PD, Zhang J, Gabor Miklos GL, Nelson C, Broder S, Clark AG, Nadeau J, McKusick VA, Zinder N, Levine AJ, Roberts RJ, Simon M, Slayman C, Hunkapiller M, Bolanos R, Delcher A, Dew I, Fasulo D, Flanigan M, Florea L, Halpern A, Hannenhalli S, Kravitz S, Levy S, Mobarry C, Reinert K, Remington K, Abu-Threideh J, Beasley E, Biddick K, Bonazzi V, Brandon R, Cargill M, Chandramouliswaran I, Charlab R, Chaturvedi K, Deng Z, Di Francesco V, Dunn P, Eilbeck K, Evangelista C, Gabrielian AE, Gan W, Ge W, Gong F, Gu Z, Guan P, Heiman TJ, Higgins ME, Ji RR, Ke Z, Ketchum KA, Lai Z, Lei Y, Li Z, Li J, Liang Y, Lin X, Lu F, Merkulov GV, Milshina N, Moore HM, Naik AK, Narayan VA, Neelam B, Nusskern D, Rusch DB, Salzberg S, Shao W, Shue B, Sun J, Wang Z, Wang A, Wang X, Wang J, Wei M, Wides R, Xiao C, Yan C, Yao A, Ye J, Zhan M, Zhang W, Zhang H, Zhao Q, Zheng L, Zhong F, Zhong W, Zhu S, Zhao S, Gilbert D, Baumhueter S, Spier G, Carter C, Cravchik A, Woodage T, Ali F, An H, Awe A, Baldwin D, Baden H, Barnstead M, Barrow I, Beeson K, Busam D, Carver A, Center A, Cheng ML, Curry L, Danaher S, Davenport L, Desilets R, Dietz S, Dodson K, Doup L, Ferriera S, Garg N, Gluecksmann A, Hart B, Haynes J, Haynes C, Heiner C, Hladun S, Hostin D, Houck J, Howland T, Ibegwam C, Johnson J, Kalush F, Kline L, Koduru S, Love A, Mann F, May D, McCawley S, McIntosh T, McMullen I, Moy M, Moy L, Murphy B, Nelson K, Pfannkoch C, Pratts E, Puri V, Qureshi H, Reardon M, Rodriguez R, Rogers YH, Romblad D, Ruhfel B, Scott R, Sitter C, Smallwood M, Stewart E, Strong R, Suh E, Thomas R, Tint NN, Tse S, Vech C, Wang G, Wetter J, Williams S, Williams M, Windsor S, Winn-Deen E, Wolfe K, Zaveri J, Zaveri K, Abril JF, Guigó R, Campbell MJ, Sjolander KV, Karlak B, Kejariwal A, Mi H, Lazareva B, Hatton T, Narechania A, Diemer K, Muruganujan A, Guo N, Sato S, Bafna V, Istrail S, Lippert R, Schwartz R, Walenz B, Yooseph S, Allen D, Basu A, Baxendale J, Blick L, Caminha M, Carnes-Stine J, Caulk P, Chiang YH, Coyne M, Dahlke C, Mays A, Dombroski M, Donnelly M, Ely D, Esparham S, Fosler C, Gire H, Glanowski S, Glasser K, Glodek A, Gorokhov M, Graham K, Gropman B, Harris M, Heil J, Henderson S, Hoover J, Jennings D, Jordan C, Jordan J, Kasha J, Kagan L, Kraft C, Levitsky A, Lewis M, Liu X, Lopez J, Ma D, Majoros W, McDaniel J, Murphy S, Newman M, Nguyen T, Nguyen N, Nodell M, Pan S, Peck J, Peterson M, Rowe W, Sanders R, Scott J, Simpson M, Smith T, Sprague A, Stockwell T, Turner R, Venter E, Wang M, Wen M, Wu D, Wu M, Xia A, Zandieh A, Zhu X
    Science. 2001 Feb 16;291:1304-51. doi: 10.1126/science.1058040

    A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five individuals. Two assembly strategies-a whole-genome assembly and a regional chromosome assembly-were used, each combining sequence data from Celera and the publicly funded genome effort. The public data were shredded into 550-bp segments to create a 2.9-fold coverage of those genome regions that had been sequenced, without including biases inherent in the cloning and assembly procedure used by the publicly funded group. This brought the effective coverage in the assemblies to eightfold, reducing the number and size of gaps in the final assembly over what would be obtained with 5.11-fold coverage. The two assembly strategies yielded very similar results that largely agree with independent mapping data. The assemblies effectively cover the euchromatic regions of the human chromosomes. More than 90% of the genome is in scaffold assemblies of 100,000 bp or more, and 25% of the genome is in scaffolds of 10 million bp or larger. Analysis of the genome sequence revealed 26,588 protein-encoding transcripts for which there was strong corroborating evidence and an additional approximately 12,000 computationally derived genes with mouse matches or other weak supporting evidence. Although gene-dense clusters are obvious, almost half the genes are dispersed in low G+C sequence separated by large tracts of apparently noncoding sequence. Only 1.1% of the genome is spanned by exons, whereas 24% is in introns, with 75% of the genome being intergenic DNA. Duplications of segmental blocks, ranging in size up to chromosomal lengths, are abundant throughout the genome and reveal a complex evolutionary history. Comparative genomic analysis indicates vertebrate expansions of genes associated with neuronal function, with tissue-specific developmental regulation, and with the hemostasis and immune systems. DNA sequence comparisons between the consensus sequence and publicly funded genome data provided locations of 2.1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A random pair of human haploid genomes differed at a rate of 1 bp per 1250 on average, but there was marked heterogeneity in the level of polymorphism across the genome. Less than 1% of all SNPs resulted in variation in proteins, but the task of determining which SNPs have functional consequences remains an open challenge.

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    02/01/01 | Orientation preference maps in mammalian visual cortex: A wire length minimization approach.
    Koulakov AA, Chklovskii DB
    Neuron. 2001 Feb;29(2):519-27

    In the visual cortex of many mammals, orientation preference changes smoothly along the cortical surface, with the exception of singularities such as pinwheels and fractures. The reason for the existence of these singularities has remained elusive, suggesting that they are developmental artifacts. We show that singularities reduce the length of intracortical neuronal connections for some connection rules. Therefore, pinwheels and fractures could be evolutionary adaptations keeping cortical volume to a minimum. Wire length minimization approach suggests that interspecies differences in orientation preference maps reflect differences in intracortical neuronal circuits, thus leading to experimentally testable predictions. We discuss application of our model to direction preference maps.

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