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89 Publications

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    12/30/16 | Live cell single molecule-guided Bayesian localization super resolution microscopy.
    Xu F, Zhang M, He W, Han R, Xue F, Liu Z, Zhang F, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Xu P
    Cell Research. 2016 Dec 30:. doi: 10.1038/cr.2015.160
    12/14/16 | The nanoscale spatial organization of B cell receptors on IgM- and IgG-expressing human B cells.
    Lee J, Sengupta P, Brzostowski J, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Pierce SK
    Molecular Biology of the Cell. 2016 Dec 14;28(4):511-23. doi: 10.1091/mbc.E16-06-0452

    B cell activation is initiated by the binding of antigen to the B cell receptor (BCR). Here we used dSTORM super resolution imaging to characterize the nanoscale spatial organization of IgM and IgG BCRs on the surfaces of resting and antigen-activated human peripheral blood B cells. We provide insights into both the fundamental process of antigen-driven BCR clustering as well as differences in the spatial organization of IgM and IgG BCRs that may contribute to the characteristic differences in the responses of naïve and memory B cells to antigen. We provide evidence that although both IgM and IgG BCRs reside in highly heterogeneous protein islands that vary in both size and number of BCR single molecule localizations, both resting and activated B cells intrinsically maintain a high frequency of single isolated BCR localizations, which likely represent BCR monomers. IgG BCRs are more clustered than IgM BCRs on resting cells and form larger protein islands following antigen activation. Small dense BCR clusters likely formed via protein-protein interactions are present on the surface of resting cells and antigen activation induces these to come together to form less dense, larger islands, a process likely governed, at least in part, by protein-lipid interactions.

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    10/31/16 | AMPK activation prevents and reverses drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocyte injury by promoting mitochondrial fusion and function.
    Kang SW, Haydar G, Taniane C, Farrell G, Arias IM, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Fu D
    PLoS One. 2016 Oct 31;11(10):e0165638. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0165638

    Mitochondrial damage is the major factor underlying drug-induced liver disease but whether conditions that thwart mitochondrial injury can prevent or reverse drug-induced liver damage is unclear. A key molecule regulating mitochondria quality control is AMP activated kinase (AMPK). When activated, AMPK causes mitochondria to elongate/fuse and proliferate, with mitochondria now producing more ATP and less reactive oxygen species. Autophagy is also triggered, a process capable of removing damaged/defective mitochondria. To explore whether AMPK activation could potentially prevent or reverse the effects of drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage, we added an AMPK activator to collagen sandwich cultures of rat and human hepatocytes exposed to the hepatotoxic drugs, acetaminophen or diclofenac. In the absence of AMPK activation, the drugs caused hepatocytes to lose polarized morphology and have significantly decreased ATP levels and viability. At the subcellular level, mitochondria underwent fragmentation and had decreased membrane potential due to decreased expression of the mitochondrial fusion proteins Mfn1, 2 and/or Opa1. Adding AICAR, a specific AMPK activator, at the time of drug exposure prevented and reversed these effects. The mitochondria became highly fused and ATP production increased, and hepatocytes maintained polarized morphology. In exploring the mechanism responsible for this preventive and reversal effect, we found that AMPK activation prevented drug-mediated decreases in Mfn1, 2 and Opa1. AMPK activation also stimulated autophagy/mitophagy, most significantly in acetaminophen-treated cells. These results suggest that activation of AMPK prevents/reverses drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through regulation of mitochondrial fusion and autophagy, making it a potentially valuable approach for treatment of drug-induced liver injury.

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    10/28/16 | Increased spatiotemporal resolution reveals highly dynamic dense tubular matrices in the peripheral ER.
    Nixon-Abell J, Obara CJ, Weigel AV, Li D, Legant WR, Xu C, Pasolli HA, Harvey K, Hess HF, Betzig E, Blackstone C, Lippincott-Schwartz J
    Science (New York, N.Y.). 2016 Oct 28;354(6311):433-46. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf3928

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an expansive, membrane-enclosed organelle that plays crucial roles in numerous cellular functions. We used emerging superresolution imaging technologies to clarify the morphology and dynamics of the peripheral ER, which contacts and modulates most other intracellular organelles. Peripheral components of the ER have classically been described as comprising both tubules and flat sheets. We show that this system consists almost exclusively of tubules at varying densities, including structures that we term ER matrices. Conventional optical imaging technologies had led to misidentification of these structures as sheets because of the dense clustering of tubular junctions and a previously uncharacterized rapid form of ER motion. The existence of ER matrices explains previous confounding evidence that had indicated the occurrence of ER “sheet” proliferation after overexpression of tubular junction–forming proteins.

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    10/24/16 | Bright photoactivatable fluorophores for single-molecule imaging.
    Lavis LD, Grimm JB, English BP, Choi H, Muthusamy AK, Mehl BP, Dong P, Brown TA, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Liu Z, Lionnet T
    Nature Methods. 2016 Oct 24;13(12):985-8. doi: 10.1038/nmeth.4034

    Small molecule fluorophores are important tools for advanced imaging experiments. The development of self-labeling protein tags such as the HaloTag and SNAP-tag has expanded the utility of chemical dyes in live-cell microscopy. We recently described a general method for improving the brightness and photostability of small, cell-permeable fluorophores, resulting in the novel azetidine-containing "Janelia Fluor" (JF) dyes. Here, we refine and extend the utility of the JF dyes by synthesizing photoactivatable derivatives that are compatible with live cell labeling strategies. These compounds retain the superior brightness of the JF dyes once activated, but their facile photoactivation also enables improved single-particle tracking and localization microscopy experiments.

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    08/01/16 | Midbody remnant licenses primary cilia formation in epithelial cells.
    Ott CM
    The Journal of Cell Biology. 2016 Aug 1;214(3):237-9. doi: 10.1083/jcb.201607046

    Tethered midbody remnants dancing across apical microvilli, encountering the centrosome, and beckoning forth a cilium-who would have guessed this is how polarized epithelial cells coordinate the end of mitosis and the beginning of ciliogenesis? New evidence from Bernabé-Rubio et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201601020) supports this emerging model.

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    02/06/16 | Dynamin regulates metaphase furrow formation and plasma membrane compartmentalization in the syncytial Drosophila embryo.
    Rikhy R, Mavrakis M, Lippincott-Schwartz J
    Biology open. 2015;4(3):301-11. doi: 10.1242/bio.20149936

    The successive nuclear division cycles in the syncytial Drosophila embryo are accompanied by ingression and regression of plasma membrane furrows, which surround individual nuclei at the embryo periphery, playing a central role in embryo compartmentalization prior to cellularization. Here, we demonstrate that cell cycle changes in dynamin localization and activity at the plasma membrane (PM) regulate metaphase furrow formation and PM organization in the syncytial embryo. Dynamin was localized on short PM furrows during interphase, mediating endocytosis of PM components. Dynamin redistributed off ingressed PM furrows in metaphase, correlating with stabilized PM components and the associated actin regulatory machinery on long furrows. Acute inhibition of dynamin in the temperature sensitive shibire mutant embryo resulted in morphogenetic consequences in the syncytial division cycle. These included inhibition of metaphase furrow ingression, randomization of proteins normally polarized to intercap PM and disruption of the diffusion barrier separating PM domains above nuclei. Based on these findings, we propose that cell cycle changes in dynamin orchestrate recruitment of actin regulatory machinery for PM furrow dynamics during the early mitotic cycles in the Drosophila embryo.

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    02/03/16 | Intracellular and extracellular forces drive primary cilia movement.
    Battle C, Ott CM, Burnette DT, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Schmidt CF
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2015 Feb 3;112(5):1410-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1421845112

    Primary cilia are ubiquitous, microtubule-based organelles that play diverse roles in sensory transduction in many eukaryotic cells. They interrogate the cellular environment through chemosensing, osmosensing, and mechanosensing using receptors and ion channels in the ciliary membrane. Little is known about the mechanical and structural properties of the cilium and how these properties contribute to ciliary perception. We probed the mechanical responses of primary cilia from kidney epithelial cells [Madin-Darby canine kidney-II (MDCK-II)], which sense fluid flow in renal ducts. We found that, on manipulation with an optical trap, cilia deflect by bending along their length and pivoting around an effective hinge located below the basal body. The calculated bending rigidity indicates weak microtubule doublet coupling. Primary cilia of MDCK cells lack interdoublet dynein motors. Nevertheless, we found that the organelles display active motility. 3D tracking showed correlated fluctuations of the cilium and basal body. These angular movements seemed random but were dependent on ATP and cytoplasmic myosin-II in the cell cortex. We conclude that force generation by the actin cytoskeleton surrounding the basal body results in active ciliary movement. We speculate that actin-driven ciliary movement might tune and calibrate ciliary sensory functions.

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    04/07/07 | Developing photo activated localization microscopy
    George H. Patterson , Eric Betzig , Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz , Harald F. Hess
    4th IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: From Nano to Macro. 2007 Apr 15:. doi: 10.1109/isbi.2007.357008

    In conventional biological imaging, diffraction places a limit on the minimal xy distance at which two marked objects can be discerned. Consequently, resolution of target molecules within cells is typically coarser by two orders of magnitude than the molecular scale at which the proteins are spatially distributed. Photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) optically resolves selected subsets of protect fluorescent probes within cells at mean separations of <25 nanometers. It involves serial photoactivation and subsequent photobleaching of numerous sparse subsets of photoactivated fluorescent protein molecules. Individual molecules are localized at near molecular resolution by determining their centers of fluorescent emission via a statistical fit of their point-spread-function. The position information from all subsets is then assembled into a super-resolution image, in which individual fluorescent molecules are isolated at high molecular densities. In this paper, some of the limitations for PALM imaging under current experimental conditions are discussed.

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