Main Menu (Mobile)- Block

Main Menu - Block

janelia7_blocks-janelia7_fake_breadcrumb | block
Pastalkova Lab / Publications
general_search_page-panel_pane_1 | views_panes

18 Publications

Showing 1-10 of 18 results
Pastalkova Lab
09/28/16 | Synchronized excitability in a network enables generation of internal neuronal sequences.
Yingxue W, Roth Z, Pastalkova E
eLife. 2016 Sep 28;5:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.20697

Hippocampal place field sequences are supported by sensory cues and network internal mechanisms. In contrast, sharp-wave (SPW) sequences, theta sequences and episode-field sequences are internally generated. The relationship of these sequences to memory is unclear. SPW sequences have been shown to support learning and have been assumed to also support episodic memory. Conversely, we demonstrate these SPW sequences were present even after episodic memory in trained rats was impaired and after other internal sequences - episode-field and theta sequences - were eliminated. SPW sequences did not support memory despite continuing to 'replay' all task-related sequences - place-field and episode-field sequences. Sequence replay occurred selectively during a synchronous increase of population excitability -- SPWs. Similarly, theta sequences depended on the presence of repeated synchronized waves of excitability - theta oscillations. Thus, we suggest that either intermittent or rhythmic synchronized changes of excitability trigger sequential firing of neurons, which in turn supports learning and/or memory.

View Publication Page
Pastalkova Lab
11/03/15 | Clique topology reveals intrinsic geometric structure in neural correlations.
Giusti C, Pastalkova E, Curto C, Itskov V
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2015 Nov 3;112(44):13455-60. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1506407112

Detecting meaningful structure in neural activity and connectivity data is challenging in the presence of hidden nonlinearities, where traditional eigenvalue-based methods may be misleading. We introduce a novel approach to matrix analysis, called clique topology, that extracts features of the data invariant under nonlinear monotone transformations. These features can be used to detect both random and geometric structure, and depend only on the relative ordering of matrix entries. We then analyzed the activity of pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampus, recorded while the animal was exploring a 2D environment, and confirmed that our method is able to detect geometric organization using only the intrinsic pattern of neural correlations. Remarkably, we found similar results during nonspatial behaviors such as wheel running and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. This suggests that the geometric structure of correlations is shaped by the underlying hippocampal circuits and is not merely a consequence of position coding. We propose that clique topology is a powerful new tool for matrix analysis in biological settings, where the relationship of observed quantities to more meaningful variables is often nonlinear and unknown.

View Publication Page
Pastalkova Lab
07/18/15 | Oscillatory patterns in hippocampus under light and deep isoflurane anesthesia closely mirror prominent brain states in awake animals.
Lustig B, Wang Y, Pastalkova E
Hippocampus. 2015 Jul 18;26(1):102-9. doi: 10.1002/hipo.22494

The hippocampus exhibits a variety of distinct states of activity under different conditions. For instance the rhythmic patterns of activity orchestrated by the theta oscillation during running and REM sleep are markedly different from the large irregular activity (LIA) observed during awake resting and slow wave sleep. We found that under different levels of isoflurane anesthesia activity in the hippocampus of rats displays two distinct states which have several qualities that mirror the theta and LIA states. These data provide further evidence that the two states are intrinsic modes of the hippocampus; while also characterizing a preparation that could be useful for studying the natural activity states in hippocampus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

View Publication Page
02/01/15 | Theta sequences are essential for internally generated hippocampal firing fields.
Wang Y, Romani S, Lustig B, Leonardo A, Pastalkova E
Nature Neuroscience. 2015 Feb;18(2):282-8. doi: 10.1038/nn.3904

Sensory cue inputs and memory-related internal brain activities govern the firing of hippocampal neurons, but which specific firing patterns are induced by either of the two processes remains unclear. We found that sensory cues guided the firing of neurons in rats on a timescale of seconds and supported the formation of spatial firing fields. Independently of the sensory inputs, the memory-related network activity coordinated the firing of neurons not only on a second-long timescale, but also on a millisecond-long timescale, and was dependent on medial septum inputs. We propose a network mechanism that might coordinate this internally generated firing. Overall, we suggest that two independent mechanisms support the formation of spatial firing fields in hippocampus, but only the internally organized system supports short-timescale sequential firing and episodic memory.

View Publication Page
Pastalkova Lab
03/01/12 | Implantable blood pressure monitoring cuff for small laboratory animal.
Pais R, Duttaroy A, Wolever J, Dobbs M, Pastalkova E
Microsystems for Measurement and Instrumentation (MAMNA), 2012. 2012 Mar:. doi: 10.1109/MAMNA.2012.6195099

Continuous monitoring of blood pressure in laboratory animals is necessary to understand the effect of treatments for cardiovascular related conditions, such as hypertension. Current methods to measure laboratory rat blood pressure require the animal to be constrained. Our proposed method is a small implantable device which fits around the carotid artery of the rat. Initial data from a mock rat artery setup, with equivalent artery pressure as found in the rat, show that the cuff design effectively detects the pressure change inside the mock artery.

View Publication Page
Pastalkova Lab
02/23/11 | Cell assembly sequences arising from spike threshold adaptation keep track of time in the hippocampus.
Itskov V, Curto C, Pastalkova E, Buzsáki G
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2011 Feb 23;31(8):2828-34. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3773-10.2011

Hippocampal neurons can display reliable and long-lasting sequences of transient firing patterns, even in the absence of changing external stimuli. We suggest that time-keeping is an important function of these sequences, and propose a network mechanism for their generation. We show that sequences of neuronal assemblies recorded from rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells can reliably predict elapsed time (15-20 s) during wheel running with a precision of 0.5 s. In addition, we demonstrate the generation of multiple reliable, long-lasting sequences in a recurrent network model. These sequences are generated in the presence of noisy, unstructured inputs to the network, mimicking stationary sensory input. Identical initial conditions generate similar sequences, whereas different initial conditions give rise to distinct sequences. The key ingredients responsible for sequence generation in the model are threshold-adaptation and a Mexican-hat-like pattern of connectivity among pyramidal cells. This pattern may arise from recurrent systems such as the hippocampal CA3 region or the entorhinal cortex. We hypothesize that mechanisms that evolved for spatial navigation also support tracking of elapsed time in behaviorally relevant contexts.

View Publication Page
Pastalkova Lab
04/27/10 | Temporal delays among place cells determine the frequency of population theta oscillations in the hippocampus.
Geisler C, Diba K, Pastalkova E, Mizuseki K, Royer S, Buzsáki G
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2010 Apr 27;107(17):7957-62. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3773-10.2011

Driven either by external landmarks or by internal dynamics, hippocampal neurons form sequences of cell assemblies. The coordinated firing of these active cells is organized by the prominent "theta" oscillations in the local field potential (LFP): place cells discharge at progressively earlier theta phases as the rat crosses the respective place field ("phase precession"). The faster oscillation frequency of active neurons and the slower theta LFP, underlying phase precession, creates a paradox. How can faster oscillating neurons comprise a slower population oscillation, as reflected by the LFP? We built a mathematical model that allowed us to calculate the population activity analytically from experimentally derived parameters of the single neuron oscillation frequency, firing field size (duration), and the relationship between within-theta delays of place cell pairs and their distance representations ("compression"). The appropriate combination of these parameters generated a constant frequency population rhythm along the septo-temporal axis of the hippocampus, while allowing individual neurons to vary their oscillation frequency and field size. Our results suggest that the faster-than-theta oscillations of pyramidal cells are inherent and that phase precession is a result of the coordinated activity of temporally shifted cell assemblies, relative to the population activity, reflected by the LFP.

View Publication Page
Pastalkova Lab
10/29/09 | Theta oscillations provide temporal windows for local circuit computation in the entorhinal-hippocampal loop.
Mizuseki K, Sirota A, Pastalkova E, Buzsáki G
Neuron. 2009 Oct 29;64(2):267-80. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3773-10.2011

Theta oscillations are believed to play an important role in the coordination of neuronal firing in the entorhinal (EC)-hippocampal system but the underlying mechanisms are not known. We simultaneously recorded from neurons in multiple regions of the EC-hippocampal loop and examined their temporal relationships. Theta-coordinated synchronous spiking of EC neuronal populations predicted the timing of current sinks in target layers in the hippocampus. However, the temporal delays between population activities in successive anatomical stages were longer (typically by a half theta cycle) than expected from axon conduction velocities and passive synaptic integration of feed-forward excitatory inputs. We hypothesize that the temporal windows set by the theta cycles allow for local circuit interactions and thus a considerable degree of computational independence in subdivisions of the EC-hippocampal loop.

View Publication Page
Svoboda LabPastalkova Lab
05/30/09 | Enemy avoidance task: a novel behavioral paradigm for assessing spatial avoidance of a moving subject.
Telensky P, Svoboda J, Pastalkova E, Blahna K, Bures J, Stuchlik A
Journal of Neuroscience Methods. 2009 May 30;180(1):29-33. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3773-10.2011

Navigation with respect to moving goals represents a useful ability in the everyday life of animals. We have developed a novel behavioral paradigm, "enemy avoidance task", in which a laboratory rat (subject) was trained to avoid another rat (enemy), while searching for small pasta pellets dispensed onto an experimental arena. Whenever the distance between the two animals was smaller than 25 cm, the subject was given a mild electric footshock. The results have shown that rats are capable of avoiding another rat while exploring an environment. Therefore, the enemy avoidance task can be used in electrophysiological, lesion or neuropharmacological studies exploring neuronal substrate coding for egocentric and allocentric positions of an observed animal.

View Publication Page
Pastalkova Lab
09/05/08 | Internally generated cell assembly sequences in the rat hippocampus.
Pastalkova E, Itskov V, Amarasingham A, Buzsáki G
Science. 2008 Sep 5;321(5894):1322-7. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3773-10.2011

A long-standing conjecture in neuroscience is that aspects of cognition depend on the brain’s ability to self-generate sequential neuronal activity. We found that reliably and continually changing cell assemblies in the rat hippocampus appeared not only during spatial navigation but also in the absence of changing environmental or body-derived inputs. During the delay period of a memory task, each moment in time was characterized by the activity of a particular assembly of neurons. Identical initial conditions triggered a similar assembly sequence, whereas different conditions gave rise to different sequences, thereby predicting behavioral choices, including errors. Such sequences were not formed in control (nonmemory) tasks. We hypothesize that neuronal representations, evolved for encoding distance in spatial navigation, also support episodic recall and the planning of action sequences.

View Publication Page