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Turaga Lab / Publications
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41 Publications

Showing 1-10 of 41 results
09/28/21 | Connectome-constrained Latent Variable Model of Whole-Brain Neural Activity
Lu Mi , Richard Xu , Sridhama Prakhya , Albert Lin , Nir Shavit , Aravinthan Samuel , Srinivas C Turaga
International Conference on Learning Representations. 09/2021:

The availability of both anatomical connectivity and brain-wide neural activity measurements in C. elegans make the worm a promising system for learning detailed, mechanistic models of an entire nervous system in a data-driven way. However, one faces several challenges when constructing such a model. We often do not have direct experimental access to important modeling details such as single-neuron dynamics and the signs and strengths of the synaptic connectivity. Further, neural activity can only be measured in a subset of neurons, often indirectly via calcium imaging, and significant trial-to-trial variability has been observed. To address these challenges, we introduce a connectome-constrained latent variable model (CC-LVM) of the unobserved voltage dynamics of the entire C. elegans nervous system and the observed calcium signals. We used the framework of variational autoencoders to fit parameters of the mechanistic simulation constituting the generative model of the LVM to calcium imaging observations. A variational approximate posterior distribution over latent voltage traces for all neurons is efficiently inferred using an inference network, and constrained by a prior distribution given by the biophysical simulation of neural dynamics. We applied this model to an experimental whole-brain dataset, and found that connectomic constraints enable our LVM to predict the activity of neurons whose activity were withheld significantly better than models unconstrained by a connectome. We explored models with different degrees of biophysical detail, and found that models with realistic conductance-based synapses provide markedly better predictions than current-based synapses for this system.

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09/03/21 | Deep learning enables fast and dense single-molecule localization with high accuracy
Speiser A, Müller L, Matti U, Obara CJ, Legant WR, Kreshuk A, Macke JH, Ries J, Turaga SC
Nature Methods. 2021 Sep 03;18(9):. doi: 10.1101/2020.10.26.355164

Single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) has had remarkable success in imaging cellular structures with nanometer resolution, but the need for activating only single isolated emitters limits imaging speed and labeling density. Here, we overcome this major limitation using deep learning. We developed DECODE, a computational tool that can localize single emitters at high density in 3D with highest accuracy for a large range of imaging modalities and conditions. In a public software benchmark competition, it outperformed all other fitters on 12 out of 12 data-sets when comparing both detection accuracy and localization error, often by a substantial margin. DECODE allowed us to take live-cell SMLM data with reduced light exposure in just 3 seconds and to image microtubules at ultra-high labeling density. Packaged for simple installation and use, DECODE will enable many labs to reduce imaging times and increase localization density in SMLM.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.

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07/01/21 | Automatic Detection of Synaptic Partners in a Whole-Brain Drosophila EM Dataset
Buhmann J, Sheridan A, Gerhard S, Krause R, Nguyen T, Heinrich L, Schlegel P, Lee WA, Wilson R, Saalfeld S, Jefferis G, Bock D, Turaga S, Cook M, Funke J
Nature Methods. 2021 Jul 1;18(7):771-4. doi: 10.1038/s41592-021-01183-7

The study of neural circuits requires the reconstruction of neurons and the identification of synaptic connections between them. To scale the reconstruction to the size of whole-brain datasets, semi-automatic methods are needed to solve those tasks. Here, we present an automatic method for synaptic partner identification in insect brains, which uses convolutional neural networks to identify post-synaptic sites and their pre-synaptic partners. The networks can be trained from human generated point annotations alone and requires only simple post-processing to obtain final predictions. We used our method to extract 244 million putative synaptic partners in the fifty-teravoxel full adult fly brain (FAFB) electron microscopy (EM) dataset and evaluated its accuracy on 146,643 synapses from 702 neurons with a total cable length of 312 mm in four different brain regions. The predicted synaptic connections can be used together with a neuron segmentation to infer a connectivity graph with high accuracy: 96% of edges between connected neurons are correctly classified as weakly connected (less than five synapses) and strongly connected (at least five synapses). Our synaptic partner predictions for the FAFB dataset are publicly available, together with a query library allowing automatic retrieval of up- and downstream neurons.

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04/21/21 | Community-based benchmarking improves spike rate inference from two-photon calcium imaging data
Berens P, Freeman J, Deneux T, Chenkov N, McColgan T, Speiser A, Macke JH, Turaga SC, Mineault P, Rupprecht P, Gerhard S, Friedrich RW, Friedrich J, Paninski L, Pachitariu M, Harris KD, Bolte B, Machado TA, Ringach D, Stone J, Rogerson LE, Sofroniew NJ, Reimer J, Froudarakis E, Euler T, Román Rosón M, Theis L, Tolias AS, Bethge M, Bush D
PLOS Computational Biology. Sep-05-2019;14(5):e1006157. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006157

In recent years, two-photon calcium imaging has become a standard tool to probe the function of neural circuits and to study computations in neuronal populations. However, the acquired signal is only an indirect measurement of neural activity due to the comparatively slow dynamics of fluorescent calcium indicators. Different algorithms for estimating spike rates from noisy calcium measurements have been proposed in the past, but it is an open question how far performance can be improved. Here, we report the results of the spikefinder challenge, launched to catalyze the development of new spike rate inference algorithms through crowd-sourcing. We present ten of the submitted algorithms which show improved performance compared to previously evaluated methods. Interestingly, the top-performing algorithms are based on a wide range of principles from deep neural networks to generative models, yet provide highly correlated estimates of the neural activity. The competition shows that benchmark challenges can drive algorithmic developments in neuroscience.

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01/01/20 | Comparative single-cell transcriptomics of complete insect nervous systems
Cocanougher BT, Wittenbach JD, Long XS, Kohn AB, Norekian TP, Yan J, Colonell J, Masson J, Truman JW, Cardona A, Turaga SC, Singer RH, Moroz LL, Zlatic M
bioRxiv. 01/2020:. doi: 10.1101/785931

Molecular profiles of neurons influence information processing, but bridging the gap between genes, circuits, and behavior has been very difficult. Furthermore, the behavioral state of an animal continuously changes across development and as a result of sensory experience. How behavioral state influences molecular cell state is poorly understood. Here we present a complete atlas of the Drosophila larval central nervous system composed of over 200,000 single cells across four developmental stages. We develop polyseq, a python package, to perform cell-type analyses. We use single-molecule RNA-FISH to validate our scRNAseq findings. To investigate how internal state affects cell state, we optogentically altered internal state with high-throughput behavior protocols designed to mimic wasp sting and over activation of the memory system. We found nervous system-wide and neuron-specific gene expression changes. This resource is valuable for developmental biology and neuroscience, and it advances our understanding of how genes, neurons, and circuits generate behavior.

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10/24/19 | Importance Weighted Adversarial Variational Autoencoders for Spike Inference from Calcium Imaging Data
Daniel Jiwoong Im , Sridhama Prakhya , Jinyao Yan , Srinivas C. Turaga , Kristin Branson
CoRR. 10/2019;abs/1906.03214:

The Importance Weighted Auto Encoder (IWAE) objective has been shown to improve the training of generative models over the standard Variational Auto Encoder (VAE) objective. Here, we derive importance weighted extensions to Adversarial Variational Bayes (AVB) and Adversarial Autoencoder (AAE). These latent variable models use implicitly defined inference networks whose approximate posterior density qφ(z|x) cannot be directly evaluated, an essential ingredient for importance weighting. We show improved training and inference in latent variable models with our adversarially trained importance weighting method, and derive new theoretical connections between adversarial generative model training criteria and marginal likelihood based methods. We apply these methods to the important problem of inferring spiking neural activity from calcium imaging data, a challenging posterior inference problem in neuroscience, and show that posterior samples from the adversarial methods outperform factorized posteriors used in VAEs.

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10/04/20 | Learning Guided Electron Microscopy with Active Acquisition
Mi L, Wang H, Meirovitch Y, Schalek R, Turaga SC, Lichtman JW, Samuel AD, Shavit N, Martel AL, Abolmaesumi P, Stoyanov D, Mateus D, Zuluaga MA, Zhou SK, Racoceanu D, Joskowicz L
Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2020. 10/2020:

Single-beam scanning electron microscopes (SEM) are widely used to acquire massive datasets for biomedical study, material analysis, and fabrication inspection. Datasets are typically acquired with uniform acquisition: applying the electron beam with the same power and duration to all image pixels, even if there is great variety in the pixels' importance for eventual use. Many SEMs are now able to move the beam to any pixel in the field of view without delay, enabling them, in principle, to invest their time budget more effectively with non-uniform imaging.

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01/01/21 | Local Shape Descriptors for Neuron Segmentation
Sheridan A, Nguyen T, Deb D, Lee WA, Saalfeld S, Turaga S, Manor U, Funke J
bioRxiv. 2021/01:. doi: 10.1101/2021.01.18.427039

We present a simple, yet effective, auxiliary learning task for the problem of neuron segmentation in electron microscopy volumes. The auxiliary task consists of the prediction of Local Shape Descriptors (LSDs), which we combine with conventional voxel-wise direct neighbor affinities for neuron boundary detection. The shape descriptors are designed to capture local statistics about the neuron to be segmented, such as diameter, elongation, and direction. On a large study comparing several existing methods across various specimen, imaging techniques, and resolutions, we find that auxiliary learning of LSDs consistently increases segmentation accuracy of affinity-based methods over a range of metrics. Furthermore, the addition of LSDs promotes affinitybased segmentation methods to be on par with the current state of the art for neuron segmentation (Flood-Filling Networks, FFN), while being two orders of magnitudes more efficient—a critical requirement for the processing of future petabyte-sized datasets. Implementations of the new auxiliary learning task, network architectures, training, prediction, and evaluation code, as well as the datasets used in this study are publicly available as a benchmark for future method contributions.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.

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04/21/21 | Model-based Bayesian inference of neural activity and connectivity from all-optical interrogation of a neural circuit
Aitchison L, Russell L, Packer AM, Yan J, Castonguay P, Häusser M, Turaga SC, I. Guyon , U. V. Luxburg , S. Bengio , H. Wallach , R. Fergus , S. Vishwanathan , R. Garnett
Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems:

Population activity measurement by calcium imaging can be combined with cellular resolution optogenetic activity perturbations to enable the mapping of neural connectivity in vivo. This requires accurate inference of perturbed and unperturbed neural activity from calcium imaging measurements, which are noisy and indirect, and can also be contaminated by photostimulation artifacts. We have developed a new fully Bayesian approach to jointly inferring spiking activity and neural connectivity from in vivo all-optical perturbation experiments. In contrast to standard approaches that perform spike inference and analysis in two separate maximum-likelihood phases, our joint model is able to propagate uncertainty in spike inference to the inference of connectivity and vice versa. We use the framework of variational autoencoders to model spiking activity using discrete latent variables, low-dimensional latent common input, and sparse spike-and-slab generalized linear coupling between neurons. Additionally, we model two properties of the optogenetic perturbation: off-target photostimulation and photostimulation transients. Using this model, we were able to fit models on 30 minutes of data in just 10 minutes. We performed an all-optical circuit mapping experiment in primary visual cortex of the awake mouse, and use our approach to predict neural connectivity between excitatory neurons in layer 2/3. Predicted connectivity is sparse and consistent with known correlations with stimulus tuning, spontaneous correlation and distance.

 

 

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04/21/21 | Programmable 3D snapshot microscopy with Fourier convolutional networks
Deb D, Jiao Z, Chen AB, Broxton M, Ahrens MB, Podgorski K, Turaga SC

3D snapshot microscopy enables fast volumetric imaging by capturing a 3D volume in a single 2D camera image and performing computational reconstruction. Fast volumetric imaging has a variety of biological applications such as whole brain imaging of rapid neural activity in larval zebrafish. The optimal microscope design for this optical 3D-to-2D encoding is both sample- and task-dependent, with no general solution known. Deep learning based decoders can be combined with a differentiable simulation of an optical encoder for end-to-end optimization of both the deep learning decoder and optical encoder. This technique has been used to engineer local optical encoders for other problems such as depth estimation, 3D particle localization, and lensless photography. However, 3D snapshot microscopy is known to require a highly non-local optical encoder which existing UNet-based decoders are not able to engineer. We show that a neural network architecture based on global kernel Fourier convolutional neural networks can efficiently decode information from multiple depths in a volume, globally encoded across a 3D snapshot image. We show in simulation that our proposed networks succeed in engineering and reconstructing optical encoders for 3D snapshot microscopy where the existing state-of-the-art UNet architecture fails. We also show that our networks outperform the state-of-the-art learned reconstruction algorithms for a computational photography dataset collected on a prototype lensless camera which also uses a highly non-local optical encoding.

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