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A comprehensive understanding of the brain requires the analysis of individual neurons. We used twin-spot mosaic analysis with repressible cell markers (twin-spot MARCM) to trace cell lineages at high resolution by independently labeling paired sister clones. We determined patterns of neurogenesis and the influences of lineage on neuron-type specification. Notably, neural progenitors were able to yield intermediate precursors that create one, two or more neurons. Furthermore, neurons acquired stereotyped projections according to their temporal position in various brain sublineages. Twin-spot MARCM also permitted birth dating of mutant clones, enabling us to detect a single temporal fate that required chinmo in a sublineage of six Drosophila central complex neurons. In sum, twin-spot MARCM can reveal the developmental origins of neurons and the mechanisms that underlie cell fate.