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1287 Janelia Publications

Showing 71-80 of 1287 results
Cui Lab
08/01/17 | Volume imaging.
Cui M, Kong L
USPTO. 2017 Aug 01;B2:

A system for a laser-scanning microscope includes an optical element configured to transmit light in a first direction onto a first beam path and to reflect light in a second direction to a second beam path that is different from the first beam path; a reflector on the first beam path; and a lens including a variable focal length, the lens positioned on the first beam path. The lens and reflector are positioned relative to each other to cause light transmitted by the optical element to pass through the lens a plurality of times and in a different direction each time. In some implementations, the system also can include a feedback system that receives a signal that represents an amount of focusing of the lens, and changes the focal length of the lens based on the received signal.

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07/31/17 | Functional regulatory evolution outside of the minimal even-skipped stripe 2 enhancer.
Crocker J, Stern DL
Development (Cambridge, England). 2017 Jul 31:. doi: 10.1242/dev.149427

Transcriptional enhancers are regions of DNA that drive precise patterns of gene expression. While many studies have elucidated how individual enhancers can evolve, most of this work has focused on what are called "minimal" enhancers, the smallest DNA regions that drive expression that approximates an aspect of native gene expression. Here we explore how the Drosophila erecta even-skipped (eve) locus has evolved by testing its activity in the divergent D. melanogaster genome. We found, as has been reported previously, that the D. erecta eve stripe 2 enhancer (eveS2) fails to drive appreciable expression in D. melanogaster (1). However, we found that a large transgene carrying the entire D. erecta eve locus drives normal eve expression, including in stripe 2. We performed a functional dissection of the region upstream of the D. erecta eveS2 region and found multiple Zelda motifs that are required for normal expression. Our results illustrate how sequences outside of minimal enhancer regions can evolve functionally through mechanisms other than changes in transcription factor binding sites that drive patterning.

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07/31/17 | The extracellular metalloprotease AdamTS-A anchors neural lineages in place within and preserves the architecture of the central nervous system.
Skeath JB, Wilson BA, Romero SE, Snee MJ, Zhu Y, Lacin H
Development (Cambridge, England). 2017 Jul 31:. doi: 10.1242/dev.145854

The extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cell migration and sculpts organ shape. AdamTS proteins are extracellular metalloproteases known to modify ECM proteins and promote cell migration, but demonstrated roles for AdamTS proteins in regulating CNS structure and ensuring cell lineages remain fixed in place have not been uncovered. Using forward genetic approaches in Drosophila, we find that reduction of AdamTS-A function induces both the mass exodus of neural lineages out of the CNS and drastic perturbations to CNS structure. Expressed and active in surface glia, AdamTS-A acts in parallel to perlecan and in opposition to viking/collagen IV and βPS-integrin to keep CNS lineages rooted in place and to preserve the structural integrity of the CNS. viking/collagen IV and βPS-integrin are known to promote tissue stiffness and oppose the function of perlecan, which reduces tissue stiffness. Our work supports a model in which AdamTS-A anchors cells in place and preserves CNS architecture by reducing tissue stiffness.

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07/31/17 | The role of the serotonergic system in motor control.
Kawashima T
Neuroscience Research. 2017 Ju 31:. doi: 10.1016/j.neures.2017.07.005

The serotonergic system in the vertebrate brain is implicated in various behaviors and diseases. Its involvement in motor control has been studied for over half a century, but efforts to build a unified model of its functions have been hampered due to the complexity of serotonergic neuromodulation. This review summarizes the anatomical structure of the serotonergic system, its afferent and efferent connections to other brain regions, and recent insights into the sensorimotor computations in the serotonergic system, and considers future research directions into the roles of serotonergic system in motor control.

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Baker Lab
07/28/17 | Genetic and neuronal mechanisms governing the sex-specific interaction between sleep and sexual behaviors in Drosophila.
Chen D, Sitaraman D, Chen N, Jin X, Han C, Chen J, Sun M, Baker BS, Nitabach MN, Pan Y
Nature Communications. 2017 Jul 28;8(1):154. doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00087-5

Animals execute one particular behavior among many others in a context-dependent manner, yet the mechanisms underlying such behavioral choice remain poorly understood. Here we studied how two fundamental behaviors, sex and sleep, interact at genetic and neuronal levels in Drosophila. We show that an increased need for sleep inhibits male sexual behavior by decreasing the activity of the male-specific P1 neurons that coexpress the sex determination genes fru (M) and dsx, but does not affect female sexual behavior. Further, we delineate a sex-specific neuronal circuit wherein the P1 neurons encoding increased courtship drive suppressed male sleep by forming mutually excitatory connections with the fru (M) -positive sleep-controlling DN1 neurons. In addition, we find that FRU(M) regulates male courtship and sleep through distinct neural substrates. These studies reveal the genetic and neuronal basis underlying the sex-specific interaction between sleep and sexual behaviors in Drosophila, and provide insights into how competing behaviors are co-regulated.Genes and circuits involved in sleep and sexual arousal have been extensively studied in Drosophila. Here the authors identify the sex determination genes fruitless and doublesex, and a sex-specific P1-DN1 neuronal feedback that governs the interaction between these competing behaviors.

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07/28/17 | Myc Regulates Chromatin Decompaction and Nuclear Architecture during B Cell Activation.
Kieffer-Kwon K, Nimura K, Rao SS, Xu J, Jung S, Pekowska A, Dose M, Stevens E, Mathe E, Dong P, Huang S, Ricci MA, Baranello L, Zheng Y, Ardori FT, Resch W, Stavreva D, Nelson S, McAndrew M, Casellas A, Finn E, Gregory C, St Hilaire BG, Johnson SM, Dubois W, Cosma MP, Batchelor E, Levens D, Phair RD, Misteli T, Tessarollo L, Hager G, Lakadamyali M, Liu Z, Floer M, Shroff H, Aiden EL, Casellas R
Molecular Cell. 2017 Jul 28;67(4):566-78. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2017.07.013

50 years ago, Vincent Allfrey and colleagues discovered that lymphocyte activation triggers massive acetylation of chromatin. However, the molecular mechanisms driving epigenetic accessibility are still unknown. We here show that stimulated lymphocytes decondense chromatin by three differentially regulated steps. First, chromatin is repositioned away from the nuclear periphery in response to global acetylation. Second, histone nanodomain clusters decompact into mononucleosome fibers through a mechanism that requires Myc and continual energy input. Single-molecule imaging shows that this step lowers transcription factor residence time and non-specific collisions during sampling for DNA targets. Third, chromatin interactions shift from long range to predominantly short range, and CTCF-mediated loops and contact domains double in numbers. This architectural change facilitates cognate promoter-enhancer contacts and also requires Myc and continual ATP production. Our results thus define the nature and transcriptional impact of chromatin decondensation and reveal an unexpected role for Myc in the establishment of nuclear topology in mammalian cells.

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07/28/17 | Structure and topology around the cleavage site regulate post-translational cleavage of the HIV-1 gp160 signal peptide.
Snapp EL, McCaul N, Quandte M, Cabartova Z, Bontjer I, Källgren C, Nilsson I, Land A, von Heijne G, Sanders RW, Braakman I
eLife. 2017 Jul 28;6:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.26067

Like all other secretory proteins, the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp160, is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by its signal peptide during synthesis. Proper gp160 folding in the ER requires core glycosylation, disulfide-bond formation and proline isomerization. Signal-peptide cleavage occurs only late after gp160 chain termination and is dependent on folding of the soluble subunit gp120 to a near-native conformation. We here detail the mechanism by which co-translational signal-peptide cleavage is prevented. Conserved residues from the signal peptide and residues downstream of the canonical cleavage site form an extended alpha-helix in the ER membrane that covers the cleavage site, thus preventing cleavage. A point mutation in the signal peptide breaks the alpha helix allowing co-translational cleavage. We demonstrate that postponed cleavage of gp160 enhances functional folding of the molecule. The change to early cleavage results in decreased viral fitness compared to wild-type HIV.

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07/27/17 | Raphe circuits on the menu.
Yang H, Sternson SM
Cell. 2017 Jul 27;170(3):409-10. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.07.017

The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is an important brain area for body-weight regulation. In this issue of Cell, Nectow et al. uncover cell-type-specific neural circuitry and pharmacology for appetite control within the DRN.

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07/26/17 | Recent progress in the 3D reconstruction of Drosophila neural circuits.
Shinomiya K, Ito M
Decoding Neural Circuit Structure and Function:63-89. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-57363-2_3

The brain of fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been used as a model system for functional analysis of neuronal circuits, including connectomics research, due to its modest size (~700 μm) and availability of abundant molecular genetics tools for visualizing neurons. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of high-resolution images of neurons or circuits visualized with appropriate methods is a critical step for obtaining information such as morphology and connectivity patterns of neuronal circuits. In this chapter, we introduce methods for generating 3D reconstructed images with data acquired from confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) or electron microscopy (EM) to analyze neuronal circuits found in the central nervous system (CNS) of the fruit fly. Comparisons of different algorithms and strategies for reconstructing neuronal circuits, using actual studies as references, will be discussed within this chapter.

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07/25/17 | Experience-dependent shaping of hippocampal CA1 intracellular activity in novel and familiar environments.
Cohen JD, Bolstad M, Lee AK
eLife. 2017 Jul 25;6:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.23040

The hippocampus is critical for producing stable representations of familiar spaces. How these representations arise is poorly understood, largely because changes to hippocampal inputs have not been measured during spatial learning. Here, using intracellular recording, we monitored inputs and plasticity-inducing complex spikes (CSs) in CA1 neurons while mice explored novel and familiar virtual environments. Inputs driving place field spiking increased in amplitude - often suddenly - during novel environment exploration. However, these increases were not sustained in familiar environments. Rather, the spatial tuning of inputs became increasingly similar across repeated traversals of the environment with experience - both within fields and throughout the whole environment. In novel environments, CSs were not necessary for place field formation. Our findings support a model in which initial inhomogeneities in inputs are amplified to produce robust place field activity, then plasticity refines this representation into one with less strongly modulated, but more stable, inputs for long-term storage.

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