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6 Janelia Publications

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    Eddy/Rivas Lab
    10/01/09 | A new generation of homology search tools based on probabilistic inference.
    Eddy SR
    Genome Informatics. International Conference on Genome Informatics. 2009 Oct;23(1):205-11

    Many theoretical advances have been made in applying probabilistic inference methods to improve the power of sequence homology searches, yet the BLAST suite of programs is still the workhorse for most of the field. The main reason for this is practical: BLAST’s programs are about 100-fold faster than the fastest competing implementations of probabilistic inference methods. I describe recent work on the HMMER software suite for protein sequence analysis, which implements probabilistic inference using profile hidden Markov models. Our aim in HMMER3 is to achieve BLAST’s speed while further improving the power of probabilistic inference based methods. HMMER3 implements a new probabilistic model of local sequence alignment and a new heuristic acceleration algorithm. Combined with efficient vector-parallel implementations on modern processors, these improvements synergize. HMMER3 uses more powerful log-odds likelihood scores (scores summed over alignment uncertainty, rather than scoring a single optimal alignment); it calculates accurate expectation values (E-values) for those scores without simulation using a generalization of Karlin/Altschul theory; it computes posterior distributions over the ensemble of possible alignments and returns posterior probabilities (confidences) in each aligned residue; and it does all this at an overall speed comparable to BLAST. The HMMER project aims to usher in a new generation of more powerful homology search tools based on probabilistic inference methods.

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    Eddy/Rivas Lab
    07/01/09 | A tool for identification of genes expressed in patterns of interest using the Allen Brain Atlas.
    Davis FP, Eddy SR
    Bioinformatics. 2009 Jul 1;25(13):1647-54. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btp288

    Gene expression patterns can be useful in understanding the structural organization of the brain and the regulatory logic that governs its myriad cell types. A particularly rich source of spatial expression data is the Allen Brain Atlas (ABA), a comprehensive genome-wide in situ hybridization study of the adult mouse brain. Here, we present an open-source program, ALLENMINER, that searches the ABA for genes that are expressed, enriched, patterned or graded in a user-specified region of interest.

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    Eddy/Rivas Lab
    05/15/09 | Infernal 1.0: inference of RNA alignments.
    Nawrocki EP, Kolbe DL, Eddy SR
    Bioinformatics. 2009 May 15;25:1335-7. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btp157

    SUMMARY: INFERNAL builds consensus RNA secondary structure profiles called covariance models (CMs), and uses them to search nucleic acid sequence databases for homologous RNAs, or to create new sequence- and structure-based multiple sequence alignments. AVAILABILITY: Source code, documentation and benchmark downloadable from INFERNAL is freely licensed under the GNU GPLv3 and should be portable to any POSIX-compliant operating system, including Linux and Mac OS/X.

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    Eddy/Rivas Lab
    05/15/09 | Local RNA structure alignment with incomplete sequence.
    Kolbe DL, Eddy SR
    Bioinformatics. 2009 May 15;25(10):1236-43. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btp154

    Accuracy of automated structural RNA alignment is improved by using models that consider not only primary sequence but also secondary structure information. However, current RNA structural alignment approaches tend to perform poorly on incomplete sequence fragments, such as single reads from metagenomic environmental surveys, because nucleotides that are expected to be base paired are missing.

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    Eddy/Rivas Lab
    01/01/09 | A survey of nematode SmY RNAs.
    Jones TA, Otto W, Marz M, Eddy SR, Stadler PF
    RNA Biology. 2009 Jan-Mar;6(1):5-8

    SmY RNAs are a family of approximately 70-90 nt small nuclear RNAs found in nematodes. In C. elegans, SmY RNAs copurify in a small ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) complex related to the SL1 and SL2 snRNPs that are involved in nematode mRNA trans-splicing. Here we describe a comprehensive computational analysis of SmY RNA homologs found in the currently available genome sequences. We identify homologs in all sequenced nematode genomes in class Chromadorea. We are unable to identify homologs in a more distantly related nematode species, Trichinella spiralis (class: Dorylaimia), and in representatives of non-nematode phyla that use trans-splicing. Using comparative RNA sequence analysis, we infer a conserved consensus SmY RNA secondary structure consisting of two stems flanking a consensus Sm protein binding site. A representative seed alignment of the SmY RNA family, annotated with the inferred consensus secondary structure, has been deposited with the Rfam RNA families database.

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    Eddy/Rivas Lab
    01/01/09 | Rfam: updates to the RNA families database.
    Gardner PP, Daub J, Tate JG, Nawrocki EP, Kolbe DL, Lindgreen S, Wilkinson AC, Finn RD, Griffiths-Jones S, Eddy SR, Bateman A
    Nucleic Acids Research. 2009 Jan;37(Database issue):D136-40. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkn766

    Rfam is a collection of RNA sequence families, represented by multiple sequence alignments and covariance models (CMs). The primary aim of Rfam is to annotate new members of known RNA families on nucleotide sequences, particularly complete genomes, using sensitive BLAST filters in combination with CMs. A minority of families with a very broad taxonomic range (e.g. tRNA and rRNA) provide the majority of the sequence annotations, whilst the majority of Rfam families (e.g. snoRNAs and miRNAs) have a limited taxonomic range and provide a limited number of annotations. Recent improvements to the website, methodologies and data used by Rfam are discussed. Rfam is freely available on the Web at

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